Teaching sentence structure Essay

Introduction The end work is dedicated to the English grammar I hope my work will the procedure of instruction and larning grammar merriment and exciting for pupils, besides want to do learning grammar every bit easy as possible by supplying you with all tools heeded to give pupils a rich and gratifying experience.Grammar becomes exciting and dynamic when you bring the existent universe into your schoolroom and convey your category out into the universe. The purpose of probe.1 ) To get a nomenclature for discoursing sentence rightness and effectivity2 ) To look for topics and verbs when perplexing out the significance of hard sentences.3 ) To understand how construction clues assist place parts of address4 ) To acknowledge participials, gerunds, and infinitives and utilize them to better sentencesTo analyze the construction of the simple sentence, to do the procedure of larning grammar apprehensible.One of the chief undertakings of making work is the salvaging private undertakings of grammar, to demo:SV Patterns 1 Subject VerbSVN Pattern 2 Subject Verb Predicate NominativeSVA Pattern 3 Subject Verb Predicate adjectiveSVO Pattern 4 Subject Verb ObjectSVIO Pattern 5 Subject Verb Indirect object Direct objectSVOC Pattern 6 Subject Verb Direct object complementThe really of the work.

It is no uncertainty that pupil turn toward adulthood and independency of idea, as they progress trough the classs.Explains that, inspire of the great involvement to a acquisition grammar, to the job sentences construction, there are some troubles in larning it. There is a great figure of some foreign linguists.In my work I tried to take the best plant of some foreign linguists as Henry I Christ, Francis B. Connors and other syntacticiansThe freshness of the work. Introduce some of the newest and most ambitious constructs of modern grammar.

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It utilizes new nomenclature and shows how instructors may get down working new definitions new accounts, and new attacks into the regular linguistic communication survey. Yet the work is arranged so that we can concentrate upon traditional elements.The theoretical signifies of the work is concluded in comparing with the nature languages Russian and Uzbek, the correlativity between the rule parts of the sentences which based on practical application. 1. Practical significance The practical plants are given in the work and trials, what can be used in larning the construction of the sentences on the class of theoretical grammar and at the practical categories of larning English.The chief resort from where I have taken the stuff of my making work are works done by Henry I Christ Modern English in Action work done by Francis B Connors & # 171 ; New ocean trips in English & # 187 ; Material from Internet and universe encyclopaedia. 1.1 The construction of the Simple Sentence & # 171 ; Every sentence has a topic and a quandary & # 187 ; .

Although you may non be like the school male child who wrote the predating account, you will likely welcome a reappraisal of grammar. Knowing the names of eight parts of address and about two twelve other footings will give you tools for bettering your authorship and speech production. This chapter will besides supply a refresher class on basicss of sentence construction.DIAGNOSTIC TEST 1.A Partss of the Simple Sentence.Copy the italicized words in a column and figure them 1 to25.

Then, utilizing the abbreviations given below, indicate the usage in the sentence of each word. Write the abbreviations in a column to the right of the words. s.s.- simple topic d.o .-direct object V .-verb i.

o .-indirect address p.a .-predicate adjective o.p .-object of preposition p.

n .-predicate noun ap.- appositional .

-predicate pronoun a.n .-adverbial noun1. The Pharos of Alexandria, a tall beacon,was a admiration of the ancient universe.2. The following twenty-four hours the new neighboursbrought us a dinner of spaghetti and delightful sauce.3. The boy of Mr.

Oliver, the corner grocer, gave me a piece of apple pie with raisins in it.4. In the forenoon the itinerants strung beads a unit of ammunition the cervix of the donkey and tied her tail with a bright ruddy thread a pace long.5. What sort of minerals can you happen in the old lead mine?6. The Buddha of Kamakura, a immense bronze statue, is considered one of the most beautiful sights in Japan.7. The imprint of the dodo shell in the stone was crisp and clear.

In the winter the stone garden looks exanimate and wastes. 2. The chief portion 2.1 Subject, verb A.1 SENTENCE A sentence expresses a complete idea. It contains a topic and a predicate ( or verb ) either expresses or understood.

The state & # 8217 ; s largest herd of American bison grazes in Custer State Park.Predicate VERB The predicate verb makes a statement, asks a inquiry, or gives a bid . Statement Custer State Park boundary lines on the Black Hills National Forest in South Dakota.

Question Who was catastrophe Jane? Command For an reliable position of the old West visit Custer State Park. AUXILIARY VERB An subsidiary helps a verb to do a statement, inquire a inquiry, or give a bid.The aides are: ( be group ) be, am, is, are, was, were, been, being ; ( have group ) has, hold, had ; ( make group ) do, does, did ; ( other ) may, might ; can, could ; shall, should ; would, must. With aides a complete verb can be two, or for words.Have you of all time eaten buffalo steak?Income from the sale of American bison meat has been partly paying for the care of Custer State Park.You should non hold been amazed at the sight of buffalo Burger bases.SIMPLE SUBJECT The simple capable answer the inquiry & # 171 ; Who? & # 187 ; or & # 171 ; What? & # 187 ; before the verb.A simple topic is normally a noun or a pronoun.

Winter temperatures in Alaska may fall to 60 grades below nothing.( Temperatures answer the inquiry & # 171 ; What my autumn? & # 187 ; )Fort Yukon has recorded temperatures of 100 grades above nothing in July. ( Fort Yukon answer the inquiry & # 171 ; What has recorded? & # 187 ; )Write the Alaskan Visitors Association for information about holidaies in Alaska. ( You, understood, reply the inquiry & # 171 ; Who write? & # 187 ; )Modifier A qualifier is a word or look that makes clearer or limits the significance of another word. For farther aid see Teacher & # 8217 ; s Manual.George Washington planned one of the first American canals.

( the first American canals is more limited than canals. The, foremost, and American modify canals. )Canalboats were drawn by hardy mules. ( Were drawn by hardy mules is different from were drawn. By hardy mules modifies were drawn. )Complete Subject The complete topic is the simple topic with its qualifiers.

A windmill on Nantucket still grinds Indian meal.Complete PREDIDICATE The complete predicate is the predicate verb its qualifiers and the words that complete its significance.Wordss which complete the significance of a verb are complements or completers. Normally every word in a simple sentence belongs either to the complete topic or the complete predicate.Windmills were one time a common sights along the Massachusetts seashores ( The perpendicular line separates the complete topic from the complete predicate.

The complete topic is underline one time and the predicate verb twice. )The first Cu coins in the settlements were minted by John Higley at Simsbury, Connecticut.1.Find the verb.2.Ask & # 171 ; Who? & # 187 ; or & # 171 ; What? & # 187 ; before the verb. Your reply is the simple topic.

3.Find all the words attached to the topic. This measure gives you the complete topic.4.Everything else is the complete predicate.

PRACTICE 1 Expanding Complete Subject and Complete predicates.Expand each of the italicized topics and predicates by adding colourful, exact qualifiers.Example: The rain came.The prayed-for rain came with the cleft of boom and the relentless tattoo of raindrops every bit large as marbles.INVERTED ORDER A sentence is inverted when the verb, or portion of it, precedes the topic.In most English sentences the topic precedes the verb.Inverted order. Along the Hudson River are found reminders of our Dutch heritage.

Reminders of our Dutch heritage are found along the Hudson River.Was the first simple school in the United States on Staten Island?Natural order. The first simple school in the United States was on Staten Island.There When there begins a sentence in invented order, it is non the topic and does non modify anything.There is ne’er the topic and doesn`t add anything to the significance.Inverted order.

There were English colonists in New England before the Pilgrims.Natural order English colonists were in New England before the Pilgrims.OVERDOING THERE. Don & # 8217 ; t overuse at that place.Too frequent usage of there is humdrum.

OTHER WORDS BEFORE SUBJECT Frequently a part of the complete predicate precedes the topic. Other words before capable In1889 the first film. Film was produced in America by Thomas A. Edison.Natural order. The first film movie was produced in America by Thomas A. Edison in 1889.ARRANGEMENT FOR STILE Often a part of the predicate verb can be placed before the complete topic for accent, for fall ining the sentence to the predating sentence, or for bettering the beat of the transition in which it occurs.

( Use this device for accent merely meagerly. )Emphasis That will ne’er bury. ( I will ne’er bury that. )Sentence beat: Suddenly and without warning, the jaguar leaped all of a sudden without warning upon the cervid ) .PRACTICE 2 Rearranging for stileRearrange each of the undermentioned sentences for increased accent or betterment in sentence beat.SIMPLE SENTENCE A simple sentence has one topic and one predicate, either or both of which may be compound.

Compound Subject: Seagoing cutthroats and stealers one time hid along the Carolina seashore.Compound predicate: Blackbeard tarred and caulked his boats in Oracoke Inlet.Compound Subject and Compound Predicate In 1718 Blackbeard and Srese Bonnet blockaded Charleston and captured five ships.

PRACTICE 3 Finding Subject and VerbsCopy the undermentioned sentences, set uping upside-down sentences in their natural order. Rearrange besides those sentences that have any portion of the predicate before the topic. Then pull one line the under the predicate verb. Separate the complete topic from the complete predicate with a perpendicular line. Topographic point all qualifiers of the verb after the perpendicular line.

Example: During the Twenties was born the epicurean film topographic point.The epicurean film topographic point was born during the Twenties.MOVIE PALACES OF THE TWENTIES1. In metropolis after metropolis at that place arose some of the most munificent edifice of all clip.2. Can you visualise imitation Assyrian temples, Chinese pagodas, Italian castles?3. Truly, words can non make justness to the impressiveness of these constructions.

4. Highly cosmetic and broad were the colourful insides.5. In many theatres moony skies, flashing stars, and floating clouds soothed the air & # 8211 ; conditioned clients and transported them to another universe.6. IN a few of these & # 171 ; atmospheric & # 187 ; Edens, particular morning and sunset consequence delighted the motion-picture fans.7. Unbelievable was the word for these elephantine edifices.

8. The Roxy Theater in New York had 6214 seats and room for 110 instrumentalists in the cavity of the orchestra.9. A immense rug covered the rotunda and required the services of many individuals for care.

10. Each flushing the Usshers had a changing-of-guard ceremonial of considerable elaborateness and split-second preciseness.11. Have these luxuriant collector’s items survived altering gustatory sensations and wonts?12. Unfortunately, most have been demolished and have been replaced with supermarkets, garages, and parking tonss.THE PARTS OF SPEECHA word becomes a portion of address when its used in a sentence.

Noun: A noun is a name.Nouns name:a. Persons, animate beings, topographic points, things.Many Americans have come to cognize the Hudson River throught the narratives of Washington Irving and the canvases of the Hudson River painters.B. Collection or groups of individuals, animate beings, or things ( corporate nouns )The council named a safety commission.c. Qualities conditions, actions, procedures, and thoughts ( abstract nouns )The declaration of Independence upheld the right of life, autonomy, and the chase of felicity.

PRONOUN A pronoun is a word used in topographic point of a noun.Because a pronoun substitutes or stands in for a noun, it avoids boring repeat of the noun. The word the pronoun refers to is its ancestor.In his narratives Washington Irving peopled the Hudson vale with amusing Dutchmen, headless equestrians, and bowling dwarfs. ( His is used alternatively of Washington Irving )These are normally used pronouns:Speaker: I, me, mine, we, us, our, ours.

Person spoken to: you, your, yours.Person or things spoken of: he, him, she, her, hers, it, its, they, them, their, theirs.Other pronouns: who, whom.Several pronouns are formed by adding ego or egos to other pronouns: myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves, itself, himself, herself, themselves,Some pronouns are formed by fall ining some, any, every, and no to organic structure, one and thing: person, person, something, anybody, nil.All, another, any, both, each, either, few, many, neither, one, other, several, some, this, these, that, those, which, whose, and what are normally pronouns when they stand entirely but are qualifiers, non pronouns, when they modify nouns.VERB Verbs do statement about individuals, topographic points, or things, ask inquiries, or give bids.Statements: Some historiographers still question Captain John Smith & # 8217 ; s history of his escapades.

Question: Did Pocahontas really rescue him?Command: Read Marshall Fishwick`s article & # 171 ; Was John Smith a Liar? & # 187 ; in American Heritage.ADJECTIVE An adjective is a word that describes or limits a noun or pronoun.An adjectival normally answers one of these inquiries: & # 171 ; Which? & # 187 ; & # 171 ; What sort of & # 187 ; & # 171 ; How many? & # 187 ; & # 171 ; How much? & # 187 ; A, an, and the, the most common adjectives, are besides called & # 171 ; articles & # 187 ; . [ 1 ]By 1700 there were 80,000 colonists in the low-lying countries along the New England seashore and in the great cardinal vale of Connecticut and Massachusetts.The monolithic oak door opened.The topic and predicate, placed on a consecutive line, are separated by a short perpendicular line. Adjectives are placed on slant lines under the words they modify.ADVERB An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjectival, or an adverb.

Adverbs non merely reply the inquiries & # 171 ; When? & # 187 ; & # 171 ; Where? & # 187 ; & # 171 ; How? & # 8217 ; & # 171 ; Why? & # 187 ; & # 171 ; How much? & # 187 ; and & # 171 ; How frequently? & # 187 ; but besides help to inquire inquiries.Where and when did Oliver Hazard Perry get the better of the British naval forcess?Many adverbs and some adjectives end in ly.To the melody of a lively polka the terpsichoreans whirled happily about the hall.( Lively is an adjectival modifying polka. Merrily is an adverb modifying whirled. )The highly of import meeting was rather ill attended.Adverbs are placed on slant lines under the words they modify.

The adverb highly modifies the adjectival of import. The adverb ailing modifies the verb was attended. The adverb quite modifies the adverb ill.If two or more words are used as a individual unit, look into the dictionary to see if the group is given as a separate entry. If so, diagram the group as though it were one word. Examples of such groups are Bay of Fundy, Siamese cat, and station office.PREPOSITION A preposition shows the relation of the noun or pronoun following it to some other word in the sentence.About 70 words may be used as prepositions: approximately, above, across, after, against, along, among, etc.

The narrative of Los Angeles begins with a Lusitanian sea captain in the employ of Spain.A preposition may be two or more words.Harmonizing to by agencies of in respect to on history ofAhead of by manner of in malice of out ofBecause of in forepart of alternatively of up ofOBJECT OF PREPOSITION The noun or pronoun after a preposition is the object of the preposition.In 1542 Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo sailed up the West seashore of Mexico to San Pedro Bay.

Give voice A phrase is a group of related words non incorporating a topic and a predicate.Phrases may be used as nouns, adjectives or adverbs.PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE consists of a preposition and its object, which may or may non hold qualifiers.A prepositional phrase is ordinary used like an adjective or an adverb.One of California & # 8217 ; s most comfortable missions was built near the present site of Los Angeles.

A preposition is placed on a slant line, and its object is put on a horizontal line joined to the slant line. Nouns and pronouns in the genitive instance ( see California & # 8217 ; s ) are used like adjectives.PRACTICE 4 Identifying Partss of address.Diagram the undermentioned sentences.

OR Copy the undermentioned sentences, jumping every other line. Underscore the simple capable one time and the predicate verb twice. Write adj.

over every adjectival and adv. Over every adverb. Enclose prepositional phrases in parentheses.Example: Berea College is located in a beautiful town in cardinal Kentucky.BEREA COLLEGE1. Visitors at the college walk along tree-shaded lanes to the assorted workshops of the college.

2. Many college industries operate successfully.3. Students work at assorted activities for 10 hours during each weak.

4. The profitable endeavors help with college disbursals.5. A beautiful hotel in town is owned by the college.6. Student waitresses serve in the cheerful dining room.7.

Other pupils work busily at administrative occupations in the hotel.8. A dairy farm is operated by the pupils.

9. Excellent adust goods are distributed throughout a big country.10. Clever playthings are sold in local stores.11. Furniture of superior quality is turned out by pupil craftsmen.12. Concerted instruction has prospered for a century at Berea College.

CONJUNCTION A connects words or groups of words.Concurrence is from conjugate, a Latin word significance & # 171 ; to fall in together & # 187 ;Concurrences, unlike prepositions, do non hold objects.A natural ice mine in Pennsylvania signifiers ice in the spring and summer but ne’er in the winter months. ) [ 2 ]Before the Revolutionary War, Kentucky and Tennessee were known to the Indians as the Middle Ground or the Dark and Bloody Ground. ( And connects Kentucky with Tennessee. Or connects as the Middle Ground with the Dark and Bloody Ground.

And connects dark with bloody. )1. Shell tonss, small town sites, and rock implements were left in the eastern United States by prehistoric Asian migrators.The concurrence and is placed on a broken line between the words it connects. The ten indicates that a concurrence is understood.2.

For several coevalss their posterities lived along the riversides and subsisted on fish, little game, roots, and nuts.The concurrence and connects the verbs lived and subsisted. The prepositional phrases for several coevalss are attached to the individual predicate line because it modifies both verbs. Notice the schematization of the four objects of the same preposition.CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONSConcurrences used in braces are called mated concurrences, or correlates: both & # 8230 ; and ; either & # 8230 ; or ; neither & # 8230 ; nor ; non merely & # 8230 ; but besides.Both archeologists and anthropologists have speculated about these people.Neither the wheel nor the Equus caballus was known to the prehistoric Indians.Neither and nor are correlate concurrences and are placed between the words they connect.

Notice how neither is joined to nor.INTERJECTION An ejaculation is a word or signifier of address that expresses strong or sudden feeling.An ejaculation has no grammatical connexion with the remainder of the sentence.Expression! This Indian pipe is made in the signifier of a adult male & # 8217 ; s figure. Oh, don & # 8217 ; t touch it!A WORD AS DIFFERENT PARTS OF SPEECH to happen the portion of address of a word, ever inquire you the inquiry & # 171 ; What does the word make in the sentence? & # 187 ;Part OF SPEECH JOB TO DOVerb provinces, asks, bidsNoun, pronoun namesAdjective, adverb modifies, clarifiesPreposition introduces, shows-relationshipsConcurrence connectsEjaculation exclaimsSome words may be used as a figure of different parts of address.Noun: There & # 8217 ; s a well in Uncle George & # 8217 ; s backyard.

Verbs: Cryings sometimes good up in Mrs. Simpson & # 8217 ; s eyes when she negotiations of her dead Canis familiaris.Adjectival: Don & # 8217 ; t you feel good today?Adverb: Stir the pudding good or it will sear.PRACTICE 5 Acknowledging Wordss as Different Parts of SpeechGive orally the portion of address of each italicized word.

1. Bud waited within. 2. Bud waited within the house.3. Oil your skates.

4. Put oil on your skates.5. I & # 8217 ; ll take those. 6.

I & # 8217 ; ll take those apples.7. Birds eat insects. 8.

Birds eat insect plagues.9. We walked across the ice. 10. We walked across.11. We & # 8217 ; ll paper the kitchen following.

12. Mother chose a green paper.13. We must sand the icy walks. 14.

We used sand from the pace.15. Marie likes her amethyst ring. 16. Her favourite rock is an amethyst.17. I & # 8217 ; ll take that cantaloup vine. 18.

That & # 8217 ; s the 1.19. The narrative is sad but true. 20.

No 1 knows the truth but me.PRACTICE 6 Using a word as Different Parts of Speech.Write sentences in which you use each of the undermentioned word as the different parts of address named after it.

Consult a dictionary if you need assist.1. flower-adjective, noun, verb.2.

on-adverb, preposition3. tan-adjective, noun, verb4. beyond & # 8211 ; adverb, preposition5. off & # 8211 ; adverb, preposition6. this-adjective, pronoun7. neither-adjective, concurrence, pronoun8. down-adverb, noun, preposition, verb9.

unit of ammunition & # 8211 ; adjectival, noun, preposition, verb10. just & # 8211 ; adjectival, adverb, nounSTRUCTURE CLUESThree first-class hints to portion of address are ( 1 ) place in the sentence, ( 2 ) terminations, and ( 3 ) signal words.Sentence PATTERNSVerbs. The verb occurs in an of import place in the construction of a sentence. What you already know about English sentence construction will assist you place verbs.The hoops player-down the tribunal.Where did you & # 8211 ; the camera?Any word you supply is a verb: ran, dribbled ; go forth, set.

Of class many words that can be used as verb are besides used as other parts of address & # 8211 ; for illustration, fall down ( verb ) a sudden autumn ( noun ) . Example the full sentence before seeking to find portion of address.Nouns. Most nouns make a meaningful form with is or are at the beginning of a sentence.Desk is friends areNouns frequently precede verbs: trees grow, pupil read, Jim hopes.Of class many words that can be used as nouns are used besides as other parts of speech-for illustration, brown yarn, ( noun ) , thread the acerate leaf ( verb ) . A word is likely a noun if it completes a form like one of these:& # 8211 ; can non populate in contaminated Waterss.Near the & # 8211 ; we found a & # 8211 ; with a & # 8211 ;Adjectives: Most adjectives readily fit into three common place in the sentence: the normal, the predicate, and the appositional places.

A word is likely an adjectival if it completes one of the undermentioned forms:Normal place Two & # 8211 ; male childs caught a & # 8211 ; fish in the & # 8211 ; watercourse.Predicate Susan is normally & # 8211 ; .Appositional place: The manager, & # 8211 ; and & # 8211 ; , spoke proudly to his winning squad.Adverbs. Most words that fit into more than one topographic point in a sentence are adverbs. Emphasis often determines arrangement.Cheerfully the hostess greeted her arriving invitees.The hostess greeted her arriving invitees cheerfully.

The hostess cheerfully greeted her geting invitees.Carl lifted his manus & # 8211 ; and moved his castle.Or: Carl & # 8211 ; lifted his manus and moved his castle.EndingCertain postfixs and other terminations provide extra aid in bespeaking portion of address. A postfix is an add-on to a word that helps make a new word. It doesn`t warrant that a word will be a certain portion of address, but it does supply a hint.Verbs.

Common verb postfixs are ate, en, fy, ize, and ish: pollinate, strengthen, amplify, recognize, admonish.Common verb terminations, which may happen with the predating postfixs, are ing, erectile dysfunction, vitamin D, and T: was seeking, hoped, told, and slept.Nouns. Most nouns have a plural signifier, normally stoping in`s and a genitive signifier stoping in`s or s`Remarkable desk Singular genitive desk & # 8217 ; sFriend friend & # 8217 ; sPlural desks Plural genitive desks`Friends friends`Certain postfixs are often used for nouns.

& # 8211 ; ance ( ence ) trust, audience & # 8211 ; ion action& # 8211 ; ation nomination & # 8211 ; ling doormat& # 8211 ; trade handcraft & # 8211 ; ment condensation& # 8211 ; dom freedom & # 8211 ; ness niceness& # 8211 ; ee absentee & # 8211 ; or creditor& # 8211 ; er officer & # 8211 ; ry competition& # 8211 ; ess waitress & # 8211 ; ship friendly relationship& # 8211 ; ette launderette & # 8211 ; th length& # 8211 ; Intelligence Communities ethics & # 8211 ; tude fortitudeAdjectives. Certain postfixs are often used for adjectives.& # 8211 ; able ( ible ) portable & # 8211 ; fic terrific& # 8211 ; Ac ( Intelligence Community ) aquatic & # 8211 ; ful careful& # 8211 ; Al ( ical ) unfriendly & # 8211 ; ile infantile& # 8211 ; an ( ian ) Bostonian & # 8211 ; ish boyish& # 8211 ; emmet ( ent ) evident & # 8211 ; ive passive& # 8211 ; ary military & # 8211 ; less careless& # 8211 ; ed wicked & # 8211 ; like homelike& # 8211 ; en oaken & # 8211 ; ous generous& # 8211 ; ern northern & # 8211 ; some loathsome& # 8211 ; esque grotesque & # 8211 ; y cheeryAdverbs. Many adverbs are formed by adding ly to an adjectival: free, freely ; rigorous, purely ; certain, surely.

( Ly, nevertheless, is non a certain mark, for many adjectives are formed by adding ly to a noun: male monarch, kingly ; clip, seasonably. The concluding trial of portion of address is use in a sentence. )Common adverb postfixs are wise, ward, and long: likewise, home-ward, and sidelong. ( But what portion of address is askance in a askance glimpse? ) The postfix is no warrant of portion of address. Always trial usage in the sentence.Signal wordsCertain words signal that peculiar parts of address will follow.

Wordss That Signal Verbs. Aides like may, can, will, could signal verbs. Wordss like he, it, or they besides signal verbs. Read the word aloud, puting he, it, or they before it, and if the look makes sense, the word can be used as a verb.

Examplehomework. n. adj. adj. n. v. homework. adj.

n. conj. V.In 1811 the first steamboat sailed down the Mississippi and inauguratedadj.

adj. n. homework. N.

a new epoch in pilotage.Steamboat ON THE MISSISSIPPIA.1. The New Orleans left an enthusiastic crowd in Pittsburgh and headed into the Ohio River.2.

The boat stopped often along the manner and received the praises of colonists along the river.3. Most people still doubted the practicality of the steamboat.4. After a cliff-hanging hold the boat successfully sailed through the unsafe rapids in the river at Louisville.5.

After this success the crew endured terrible temblors and chase by warlike Indians.6. Roots, stumps, and channels shifted during the disruptive temblors.7.

A fire destroyed portion of the forward cabin.8. Despite the reverses, the New Orleans eventually reached Natchez.B. 1. The New Orleans subsequently foundered on a stump.2. Other steamboats shortly appeared and dominated river traffic.

3. Great disbursal was lavished on cabins and adjustments.4. Captains took pride in the velocity of their vass.5. Steamboat races were officially discouraged but were on the side encouraged.

6. Boiler detonations plagued operations from the earliest yearss.7. In early old ages the boats were constructed without programs.8. The celebrated Robert E. Lee was built by this rule-of-thumb method.

Suggestion FOR STYLE IMPROVEMENTSPECIFIC NOUNS Use vigorous, specific nouns.We surprised a bird and an animate being near the pool.2. Avoid lazy, vague, & # 171 ; thingy & # 187 ; replacements for clear thought.Indefinite: in the old bole we discovered three things.Definite: In the old bole we discovered a bettered canteen, a missive from a Georgia lieutenant, and a Confederate bank note.POWERFUL VERBS Seek colorful, exact verbs.Nouns and verbs provide the tendon of the sentence.

Freddie made a face when he tasted the cough medical specialty.CONTROLLED ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS. Use adjectives and adverbs for specific effects. Do non stack unneeded item upon item by overdriving these helpful words.Normally utilize a colourful noun ( miser ) alternatively of a weak adjectival plus a general noun ( avaricious individual ) . Normally use a vigorous verb ( scamper ) alternatively of a weak adverb plus general verb ( run hurriedly ) .

WORD FOR PHRASE Use a phrase merely when the individual word will add neither extra information nor coveted accentNormally say quickly, non with great velocity ; the redbrick house, non the house of ruddy brick.PRACTICE 8 Improving sentences.A. For each general underlined noun replace a more specific noun.1. For sweet we had fruit and bar.2. In the drawer there were four things3.

At the baby’s room Dad bought a tree, a bush, and a flower4. My brother has three unusual pets.5. During gym one squad played one game ; the 2nd squad played an otherB. Using the suggestions for bettering manner, make the undermentioned sentences more vigorous and concise.

1. The puppy with the brown pelt walked falteringly along the hall2. During our holiday in Arizona we enjoyed skies of bluish and yearss with Sun.3. Mel was non a cowardly individual, but he was really much afraid of injections.4. In Holland the places of wood protect against the Fieldss of clay5.

Modern really tall edifices frequently look like extremums of glass.WORD WITH DOUBLE ROLES Some words perform two occupations at the same clip.Have you of all time seen my cousin & # 8217 ; s aggregation of seashells?Cousin & # 8217 ; s plays a dual function. It modifies aggregation like an adjectival. It is modified by my like a noun. It performs both occupations at the same clip.

There are six common groups of words that play dual functions.1. The genitive noun Acts of the Apostless like a noun and an adjectival. It is diagramed like an adjective.My immature brother & # 8217 ; s laughter is a happy sound in our house.

( Brother `s modifies laughter: my and immature modify brother & # 8217 ; s. ) .2. The genitive pronoun Acts of the Apostless like a pronoun and an adjectival.

It is diagramed like an adjectival. These are common genitive pronouns: my, our, ours, his-before a noun-her, its, and their.The old soldiers took off their chapeaus as the flag went by. ( Their modifies chapeaus like an adjective ; it has an ancestor, soldiers, like a pronoun )3.

The adverbial noun Acts of the Apostless like a noun and an adverb. It is a diagramed like an adverbial prepositional phrase.4.

The participle Acts of the Apostless like a verb and an adjective.5. The gerund Acts of the Apostless like a verb and a noun.6. The infinitive Acts of the Apostless like a verb and a noun, a verb and an adjectival, or a verb and an adverb.PRACTICE 9 Analyzing words of Double Function.Which words in the undermentioned sentences play a dual function? Explain.1.

My pa waited two old ages for his present occupation.2. An old Canis familiaris & # 8217 ; s trueness is a invaluable gift.3. His male parent worked in a fabrication works.4.

On a quiet Saturday Mr. Parker can fit two mean yearss & # 8217 ; end product of work.5. Ted fell seven pess from the top of the ladder but was unhurt.OTHER PARTS OF THE SENTENCEEvery sentence has a back a anchor & # 8211 ; the simple topic and the predicate verb. It may besides hold, as portion of the anchor, a complement or completer of the verb. Five complements are the predicate adjective, the predicate noun, the predicate pronoun, the direct object, and the indirect object.

2.2 Capable Verb, Predicate Nominative PREDICATE NOUN AND PREDICATE PRONOUN A predicate noun or predicate pronoun reply the inquiry & # 171 ; Who? & # 187 ; or & # 171 ; What? & # 187 ; after a linking verb.The predicate noun or predicate pronoun, except after a negative, means the same as the topic. ( Predicate nouns and predicate pronouns are besides called & # 171 ; predicate nominatives. & # 187 ; )The country within five 100 stat mis of Kansas City is the tornado brooder of the United States. ( Area=incubator )A fishing rod is a stick with a hook at one terminal and a sap at the other. & # 8211 ; Samuel Johnson ( angling rod=stick )Four of our first five Presidents were Virginians.

Virginians, the predicate noun, answers the inquiry & # 171 ; What? & # 187 ; after the verb and means the same as the topic. The line slants toward the topic.Certain verbs in the inactive voice become associating verbs and may take predicate nouns or predicate pronouns.Examples: are appoint, name, take, see, chosen, name, and ballot.The Spanish settlements have been called the caput quarters for a hoarded wealth Hunt. 2.3 Subject, Verb, Predicate Adjective PREDICATE ADJECTIVE A predicate adjective completes a associating verb and describes the topic.

Predicate adjectives are often used after signifiers of the verb be, go, turn, gustatory sensation, seem, appear, look, feel, odor and sound.The Zuni Indians of the New Mexico are celebrated for their rain dances. Because of the Indian drums the colonists grew more and more uneasy.The predicate adjectival uneasy completes the predicate and describes the topic. The concurrence and joins the two adverbs more and more.Not every adjective in the predicate is a predicate adjective.

Our manager is a acute pupil of baseball ( Keen modifies the predicate noun pupil and is non a predicate adjective. )ADJECTIVE POSITION Most adjectives readily fit into three common places in the sentence.Normal place: An English chemist provided the first financess for the Smithsonian Institution.

( The italicized adjectives precede the nouns they modify. )Predicate place: The Smithsonian Institution is alone in the diverseness of its aggregations ( the italicized adjective follows the associating verb see )Appositional place: Its American gold-coin aggregation, outstanding for its completeness, fascinates many visitants.PRACTICE 10 Using Complements in Sentences.Put each of the undermentioned verbs into a sentence with a predicate adjective, a predicate noun, or a predicate pronoun, Label each complement public address system, p.n.

, or became expressions tasted tungstenere electedis felt odors has been appointed was namedwill be grew sounded are considered were voted 2.4 Subject, Verb, Object The direct object answers the inquiry & # 171 ; Who? & # 187 ; or & # 171 ; What? & # 187 ; after an action verb.Samuel Slater introduced the cotton factory to the United States.

( Introduced what? Cotton factory. )Like the English factory proprietors, Slater employed kids in his mill. ( Employed whom? Children. )1. For his workers he built the first Sunday school in New England.Sunday School, the direct object, is separated from the verb by a short perpendicular line.2.

The class of survey included reading, composing, arithmetic, and faith.Notice the compound direct object on horizontal lines.PRACTICE 11 Acknowledging Other Partss of the Sentence.Diagram the undermentioned sentences.OR Copy following sentences, jumping every other line. Underscore the simple or compound capable one time and every predicate verb twice.

Put parentheses around prepositional phrases. Write p.a.

( predicate adjective ) , P, n. ) Predicate noun ) , d.o. ( direct object ) above every word used in one of these ways.( In 1900 ) an vague author created a work ( of enduring celebrity ) .THE WIZARD OF OZA. 1. ( After failures in several different Fieldss, ) L.

Frank Baum wrote. The Wizard of Oz.B. 1. Twice Baum announced the terminal ( of the series ) 2.5 Capable Verb, Indirect Object, Direct Object When a direct object ( replying the inquiry & # 171 ; What? & # 187 ; or & # 171 ; Whom? & # 187 ; ) is used, an indirect object is sometimes used besides, replying the inquiry & # 171 ; To whom? & # 187 ; or & # 171 ; For whom? & # 187 ; .

The indirect object normally comes between the verb and the direct object. Puting to or for before an indirect object does non normally change the sense.The Scarecrow gave Dorothy waies. ( Gave to whom? Dorothy. )Dad built me a pigeon henhouse. ( Build for? Me )At the statue of Emmeline Labiche, Aunt Sally told Shirley and me the fable of Evangeline.Shirley and me, the compound indirect object of told, are diagramed like the compound object of a preposition. Shirley and me answer the inquiry & # 171 ; Told to whom? & # 187 ;PRACTICE 12. Picking Out Direct and Indirect ObjectsRead each sentence aloud. Identify direct and indirect objects.WHAT ‘S IN NAME?1. After an accident, John Smith dutifully offered the police officer his services as a informant.2. & # 171 ; Tell me your name. & # 187 ;3. Smith gave the officer his name.4. The officer groaned. & # 171 ; Make me a favour. Give me your existent name.5. & # 171 ; I & # 8217 ; ve told you the truth. & # 187 ;6. After three ineffectual attempts Smith told the officer, Napoleon Bonaparte. & # 187 ;7. & # 171 ; That & # 8217 ; s better, & # 187 ; said the police officer. & # 171 ; Peoples have given me that Smith nonsense excessively often. & # 187 ;PRACTICE 13 Using Direct and Indirect Objects EfficaciouslyBy utilizing indirect objects and extinguishing useless words, combine each brace of sentences into one good sentence.Example: Northerner pedlars sold Sn ware, pins, gingham, and threads. They sold these to homemakers.Northerner pedlars sold homemakers tin ware pins, gingham, and threads.1. Uncle Ted sent a carven cheat set from the Black Forest. He sent it to me.2. In store I am doing bookcase. I am doing it for my brother.3. Aunt Pauline wanted me to hold a seed necklace. She sent it to me from Puerto Rico.4. Send the waies. Please allow me hold them before Saturday.5. Dad built three new birdhouses. He built them for the Wrens.6. Can you do a posting? Will you do one for us for Book Week?PRACTICE 14. Using Direct and Indirect Objects in Sentences WSelect five of the undermentioned and in good sentences use each as a direct object and as an indirect objectExample: Sally and himWe invited Sally and him to the Bob Cummings Play at the summer wendy house. ( Direct object )We sent Sally and him tickets for the 3rd row. ( Indirect object )him them her and her friendher him and Sandy my sister and himus her and him her and Aliceme Mother and me her and meAPPOSITIVE An appositive is a word or look which explains the noun or pronoun it follows and names the same individual, topographic point, or thing.Baseball, a popular American game, developed from One Old Cat, a favourite in colonial times. ( Baseball= game ; One Old Cat=Favorite )An appositional and a predicate noun are similar. The difference is that a verb connects the topic and the predicate noun, while an appositional follows a word straight and is by and large set off by commas.Appositional: The Homestake, this state & # 8217 ; s largest gold mine, is in Lead, South Dakota.Predicate noun: The Homestake is this state & # 8217 ; s largest gold mine.Bloody Basin, the locate of several Zane Grey novels, is still a crude country.Locale is in apposition with Bloody Basin. An appositional is placed after the word it explains and is enclosed in parentheses. The and of several Zane Grey novels modify venue.ADVERBIAL NOUN Nouns which indicate distance, clip, weight, or value are frequently used as adverbs.The doomed Shenandoah was about three metropolis blocks long. ( How 25000 long? Blocks. )Before its clang in 1925 this celebrated airship had flown 25,000 stat mis. ( How much? Miles. )1. Last Summer Paul, Chris, and I rode a mule-drawn flatboat on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. Summer, a noun used as an adverb, modified the verb rode. It is diagramed like the object of a preposition.2. The square, wooden houses of comfortable New England sea captains were normally three narratives high.Narratives, a noun used as an adverb, modify the predicate adjectival high.PRACTICE 15. Identifying Partss of the Simple SentenceDiagram the undermentioned sentences.OR Copy the undermentioned sentences, Jumping every other line. Underscore every simple or compound capable one time and every predicate verb twice. Enclose every prepositional phrase in parentheses. Identify all signifiers listed below. Write the abbreviation above the word.public address system & # 8211 ; predicate i.o. & # 8211 ; indirect adjectivep.n. & # 8211 ; predicate noun o.p. & # 8211 ; object of & # 8211 ; predicate pronoun ap. & # 8211 ; appositionald.o. & # 8211 ; direct object a.n. & # 8211 ; adverbial nounHE FIGHT FOR PURE FOODS AND DRUGSA. 1. The medical specialty adult male is a stock character ( in many Western films and novels )2. ( Harmonizing to the salesman ) his & # 171 ; snake oil & # 187 ; could bring around any complaint.3. His amusing behaviour has given modern movie-goers many laughs.4. ( In a serious vena ) he symbolizes the deficiency ( of protection ) ( for the citizens ) ( of yesterday )5. Lack ( of unvarying statute law ) and unequal protection endangered the heals ( of all Americans ) sixty old ages ago.6. Foods and drugs were non regulated ( for the public assistance ) ( of all )7. Sellers ( of medical specialties ) made impossible claims.8. Foods were packaged ( under insanitary conditions. )9. Weights were dishonest.10. Narcotics ( in medical specialties ) caused drug dependence.B. 1. Expensive nutrients were adulterated ( with cheaper replacements )2. ( For cogent evidence ) ( of the genuineness ) ( of his merchandise ) one maker put a dead bee ( in every jar ) ( of artificial & # 171 ; honey & # 187 ; )3. Harmful chemical preservatives were randomly added ( to nutrients )4. Dr. Harvey W. Wiley, main chemist ( of the Department of Agriculture ) , was a reformer ( for ordinance )5. His base was un popular ( with many groups ) ( of people )6. Each twelvemonth new oppositions attacked Dr. Wiley.7. He had a powerful ally, President Theodore Roosevelt.8. ( After many troubles ) a measure was passed and was sent ( To the President )9. ( In 1906 ) the measure became a low and opened a new epoch ( in public wellness )10. ( IN 1956 ) ( on the 50th day of remembrance ) ( of the jurisprudence & # 8217 ; s transition ) Dr. Wiley & # 8217 ; s portrayal was placed ( on a commemorating cast )MASTERY TEST 1B Partss of the Simple SentenceMEDIAN 16.8Copy the italicized words s a column and figure them 1 to 25. Then, utilizing the undermentioned abbreviations, indicate the usage in the sentence of each word. Write the abbreviations in a column to the right of the words.s.s. & # 8211 ; simple capable d.o. & # 8211 ; direct objectv. & # 8211 ; verb i.o. & # 8211 ; indirect objectpublic address system & # 8211 ; predicate adjectival o.p. & # 8211 ; object of prepositionp.n. & # 8211 ; predicate noun ap. & # 8211 ; & # 8211 ; predicate pronoun a.n. & # 8211 ; adverbial noun1. The main beginning of lead is galena, a grey mineral.2. Were elephants of all time native to America?3. The following hebdomad Ralph, an first-class hurler, became a member of the squad.4. Is that kittenish hamster a pet of yours?5. A few proceedingss subsequently the sky was turning ruddy and violet and merely a small darker.6. For Easter Grandmother Lane bought Susie a new ruddy bonnet with a plume on it.7. Tom and Huck adopted Joe as a member of their nine and taught him all their secret marks.8. Betsy, a skilled mimic, reenacted the scene with deathly pragmatism.When your trial has been marked, turn to the first page of the book and undermentioned waies, fix your accomplishment graph for the twelvemonth. Then enter on the graph your grade in Test 1. During the twelvemonth enter on this graph your grade in every command trial. 2.6 Subject, Verb, Direct Object, Complement ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENT An adjectival complement completes the verb and refers to the direct object.It is the normally a noun or an adjectival.The juniors chose Sam Ackerson category speechmaker. ( Chose Sam Ackerson what? Orator. The noun speechmaker refers to the direct object ; Sam Ackerson. )The executioner found Sydney Carton ready. ( Found Sydney Carton what? Ready. The adjectival ready refers to the direct object, Sydney Carton. )Do non misidentify a sentence with a indirect object for a sentence with an nonsubjective complement.Ellen made Dad a knitted tie. ( Made for Dad a tie. Dad is the indirect object ; tie is the direct object. )Ellen made Dad proud of her. ( Made Dad what? Proud. Dad is the direct object ; proud is the nonsubjective complement. )A verb which takes an nonsubjective complement in the active voice may in the inactive voice take a predicate noun or a predicate adjective.ActiveObjective complement: The hoops squad chose Frank captain.PassivePredicate noun: Frank was chosen captain by the hoops squad.ActiveObjective complement: Dad has painted our boat maroon.Predicate adjective: Our boat have been painted maroon by Dad.The active voice with the nonsubjective complement is normally more graphic and forceful than the passive.1. Mrs. Hollis considers the dictionary the most valuable mention book.The nonsubjective complement mention book completes the verb and refers to the direct object, dictionary. The line slants toward the object.2. Old ages of attention and anxiousness had made George Washington homesick for Mount Vernon and tidal bore for a quiet retirement.Homesick tidal bore are a compound nonsubjective complement. They complete the verb had made and refers to the direct object, George Washington.PRACTICE 16. Using the Objective ComplementChange each of the undermentioned sentences in the inactive voice to a sentence in the active voice. Use an nonsubjective complement in each. Underscore the nonsubjective complement.Example: I was made afraid by the sudden noise.The sudden noise made me afraid.1. Sally was elected president by the junior category.2. Sue Johnson was voted most popular by the senior category.3. The brown grass was sprayed green by Dad.4. Jim is considered a great with by his friends.5. The pink cornel is considered by many people the most people the most beautiful blossoming tree.RETAINED OBJECT A verb which takes an indirect object in the active voice may in the inactive voice retain a direct object ( called the & # 171 ; retained object & # 187 ; ) .Active voice, with indirect object: Mr. Tompkins gave the new hurler his instructions ( Instructions is the direct object ; pitcher is the indirect object. )Passive voice with maintained object: The new hurler was given his instructions by Mr. Tompkins. ( Instructions is the maintained object )The active voice with an indirect object is normally preferred to the inactive voice with a maintained object. Where the actor of the action is unknown or unimportant, nevertheless, the maintained object is a utile device.For the bar of abject each British crewman was allotted a day-to-day ration of lemon juice. ( Ration is the maintained object )The spaceman was an awarded a decoration for his accomplishments.The maintained object decoration is separated from the verb by a wavy line.RETAINED INDIRECT OBJECT An indirect object may besides be retained in the inactive voice.Active voice: They gave the victor of the spelling bee a award.Passive voice: A award was given the victor of the spelling bee. ( Winner is a maintained indirect object. The passive does non stress the actor of the action. )Two hamsters were given him for Christmas.The maintained indirect object him is diagramed like a regular indirect object.PRACTICE 17. Identifying Partss of the Simple Sentence DDiagram the undermentioned sentences.OR Copy the undermentioned sentences, jumping every other line. Underscore every simple or compound capable one time and every predicate verb twice. Enclose every prepositional phrase in parentheses. Identify all signifiers listed below. Write the abbreviation above the word.public address system & # 8211 ; predicate adjectival ap. & # 8211 ; appositionalp.n. & # 8211 ; predicate noun a.n. & # 8211 ; adverbial & # 8211 ; predicate pronoun o.c. & # 8211 ; nonsubjective complementd.o. & # 8211 ; direct object r.o. & # 8211 ; retained objecti.o. & # 8211 ; indirect objects r.i.o. & # 8211 ; retained indirect objecto.p. & # 8211 ; object of preposition1 We found Scott uneasy ( about his scrutiny ) .2. The male childs were given first-class advice ( for the choice ) ( of a college ) .3. Heavy insularity will do the kennel warm and cosy.4. The princes in & # 171 ; The Lady or the Tiger? & # 187 ; is given two picks.5. Dad painted the life room a light shadiness ( of viridity )6 A wages was offered her.PRACTICE 18 Using Retained ObjectsChange each of the undermentioned sentences with indefinite topics into sentences with maintained objects.Examples: They gave us three suggestions for get downing a coin aggregation.We were given three suggestions for get downing a coin aggregation.1. They gave the plagiarists five proceedingss for their determination.2. they told us nil about the alteration in ordinances3. They gave us a hebdomad for registering concluding applications.4. They awarded Perry Mason & # 8217 ; s client a significant judgement.5. They sent us booklets on callings.PRACTICE 19 Changing Passive to ActiveChange each of the undermentioned sentences with maintained object to forceful sentences in the active voice.Example: I was given a pearl necklace by Aunt Martha.Aunt Martha gave me a pearl necklace.1. I was told my favourite narrative about my male parent & # 8217 ; s childhood adventures by my grandma.2. Johnny was sent a existent Swiss cowbell by Uncle Ted.3. I was given some foreign currency by Mrs. Walker.4. Paul was done a favour by Dan Abrams.5. The invitees were played a lively folk melody by the orchestra.VERBAL: PARTICIPLES, GERUNDS, INFINITIVESVERBAL A verbal is a verb signifier used like an adjectival, a noun, or an adverb.Like verbs, verbal can hold complements and adverbial qualifiers. They can non, nevertheless, be predicate verbs.NOT A SENTENCE The flag still is winging over Fort McHenry. [ 3 ]A SENTENCE The flag was still winging over Fort McHenry.A SENTENCE Francis Scott Key saw the flag still winging over Fort McHenry.PARTICIPLE A participial is a signifier of the verb that is used merely as an adjectiveA participial is portion adjective and portion verb. Many participials end in ing, erectile dysfunction, or d. The participials of the verb carry are transporting, carried, holding carried, being carried, holding been carried.To happen out what word a participial modifies, inquire the inquiry & # 171 ; Who? & # 187 ; or & # 171 ; What? & # 187 ; about it.Stately sign of the zodiacs built by whaling captain line the sett streets of Nantucket. ( What were built? Sign of the zodiacs. Built modifies sign of the zodiacs. )Among the houses run alonging the elm-shaded street are three big 1s known as the & # 171 ; Three Bricks & # 187 ; ( Lining is a participle modifying houses ; known is a participle modifying 1s. )1. A life written by Parson Weems established Francis Marion as the Robin Hood of the Revolution.A participial is placed partially on a aslant line, like an adjectival, and partially on a horizontal line, like a verb. As an adjectival, written modifies biography ; as a verb, it is modified by the adverb phrase by Parson Weems.2. Having served his state as a regular officer for five old ages, Marion began his calling as a zealot in 1780.The participial holding served as an adjectival modifies Marion ; as a verb, it takes a direct object, state, and is modified by two adverbs phrases, as a regular officer and for five old ages.PARTICIPIAL PHRASE A participial and the words that modify it or finish its significance signifier a participial phrase.Using his experience as an Indian combatant and his cognition of the glooming cypress swamps, Marion astutely planned his foray. ( The participle phrase contains two prepositional phrases, as an Indian combatant and of the glooming cypress swamps, and two direct objects, experience and cognition. )PRACTICE 20 Explaining ParticiplesDiagram the undermentioned sentences.OR Copy every participial and explicate its usage in the sentence.THE GREATES SHOWMAN1. Born in1810, P.T. Barnum held a assortment of occupations in his early old ages.2. Having studied people carefully, he shortly discovered the power of wonder.3. Barnum & # 8217 ; s museum was a show of oddnesss collected from assorted topographic points on Earth.4. Some of the oddnesss were shams manufactured by Barnum.5. Having joined the organic structure of a monkey and the tail of a fish, Barnum exhibited a & # 171 ; mermaid. & # 187 ;6. He one time exhibited a cutpurse caught by the constabulary.A.1. General Tom Thump and the & # 171 ; Woolly Horse & # 187 ; were two other celebrated oddnesss exhibited by Barnum.2. Barnum, holding directed a parade of 10 elephants on Broadway, kept one elephants for promotion intents.3. Visitors to Bridgeport could watch this elephant ploughing a field.4. Having brought the great vocalist Jenny Lind here, Barnum really furthered the cause of music in America.5. Mark Twain exhaustively enjoyed the autobiography foremost written by Barnum in 1855.6. Having united forces with J.A. Bailey, Barnum formed one of the greatest circuses in the universe.GERUND A verb signifier stoping in ing may be used as a noun. This verbal noun is called a & # 171 ; gerund. & # 187 ;Capable: Catching and chastening a wild pony was an Indian equestrian & # 8217 ; s first concern. ( Catching and taming is the compound topic of the verb was. ) .The Plains Indians enjoyed rushing Equus caballuss for athletics.OBJECT OF PREPOSITIONThe Indians trained a Equus caballus for a race by binding the animate being to a interest or tree.1. Traversing the Niagara gorge on a tightrope was foremost accomplished by the Frenchman known professionally as Blondin.As a noun the gerund crossing is the topic of the verb was accomplished. As a verb it is modified by the adverb phrase on a tightrope and takes the object gorge. Known is a participle modifying Frenchman. When the topic, the direct object, or the predicate noun is a gerund phrase, it is placed on a platform as indicated in the diagram.2. One of his dramatic efforts was transporting a adult male on his dorsum during a crossing.Carrying is used as a predicate noun. Crossing, in the sense used here, is defined as a noun.3. Blondin frequently thrilled witnesss by turning somersets on the rocking rope.The gerund turning is the object of the preposition by and takes the object somersets.GERUND PHRASE A land and the word which modify it or finish its significance signifier a gerund phrase.At the age of all right Blondin began experimenting on the tightrope.PRACTICE 21 Explaining GerundsDiagram the undermentioned sentences.OR Copy every gerund and explicate its usage.THE Great SUBWAY MYSTERYA. 1. Can you conceive of constructing a tunnel in secret beneath a busy metropolis street?2 A surprise events for New Yorkers in 1870 was the gap of a cryptic new metro.3. Cars were propelled by blowing air through a tubing.4. The builder, Alfred Beach, had received permission for building a pneumatic despatch service.5. Alternatively he built a metro by enlarging the tubing.6. For privateness, the builder chose working during the quiet hours of the dark.B 1. For taking soil softly the workers muffled the wheels of the waggons.2. Burrowing through the dirt did non upset the street traffic.3. The end was supplying a new method of transit for New Yorkers.4. Opening the first little stretch might promote extension of the line.5. By killing a theodolite measure, the political resistance delayed farther advancement.6. In delving a metro in 1912 workers broke through the old tunnel and found the small auto on its tracks.Genitive WITH A GERUND Use the genitive signifier of a noun or a pronoun before a gerund.Peoples gasped at ( him, his ) executing meredible efforts 190 pess above the H2O. ( People did non pant at him ; they gasped at his executing unbelievable efforts. Performing is a gerund, object of the preposition at. His modifies executing. )PRACTICE 22 Modifiers of GerundsChoose the preferable or ne’er & # 8211 ; questioned signifier in each brace of parentheses, and state how it is used.1. Curt & # 8217 ; s female parent disapproved ( him, his ) make up one’s minding to drop orchestra.2. The parents enjoyed ( our, us ) singing the old vocals for the particular music plan.3. Sandy & # 8217 ; s sister object to ( him, his ) playing records during her telephone calls.4. My parents were delighted at ( me, my ) going athleticss editor on the Clarion.5. Congratulations! I & # 8217 ; ve merely heard of ( you your ) winning a trip to Washington.6. The instructor approved ( Tom, Tom & # 8217 ; s ) utilizing the Reader & # 8217 ; s Guide for his undertaking.PARTICIPLE AND GERUND The genitive is non used with a participial.The sense of the sentence will find whether a participial or a gerund is required.Participles: We found him walking in the park. ( His would non do sense. Walki

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argumentative sentence structure

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Sentence Structure Essay

In building a sentence. the author brings about what he has in head. However.

it is non pleasant for the portion of the reader to read a sentence where the words contained don’t relate with each other. Construction involves right sentence order. right construction and lucidity. Verb tenses find if an action was taken at the yesteryear. is being taken at the present.

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and will be taken in the hereafter. “At the clip the famous person went up the phase. the crowd cheers with such joy” has an inconsistent tense since the first phrase indicated a past tense. At the clip the famous person went up the phase. the crowd cheered with such joy” has a right building.“They must reflect existent alterations in clip. ” ( Aaron. 2007.

p. 209 ) A temper is a signifier of verb that tells whether the talker is saying a fact or inquiring a inquiry ( declarative ) . doing a request/command ( imperative ) .

or showing a supposition/suggestion or status that is contrary to a fact ( subjunctive ) . Shifts in temper. normally in imperative signifier. don’t make any consistence. “Open the seal wholly. and agitate it good before using” gives a complete direction to be done.The voice of the verb determines the activity of the topic.

In the active voice. the topic is the actor ; while in inactive voice. it receives the action done by another object. “Water gives nutrient for the workss ; refreshment for people is given by water” is inconsistent. “Water gives nutrient for the workss and refreshment for people” is right since they are both in active voice.

Verb tenses. temper and voice must be consistent in their signifier throughout the whole sentence to avoid confusion and supply lucidity.

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How to write an argumentative essay.

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How to write an argumentative essay? The argumentative essay is a genre of writing that requires the student to investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner. Argumentative essays allow writers to express their opinion on a topic and support that opinion with strong logic and evidence. Read on to discover the outline for how to write an argumentative essay, and see examples of how to construct each part of this essay.

Argumentative Essay Writing Tips:

Argumentative essay definition, argumentative essay types, argumentative essay format, argumentative essay structure, argumentative essay outline, how to revise an argumentative essay, argumentative essay topics.

We’ve all used some form of argumentation at one point in our lives. Whether it was asking parents for permission to go somewhere, seeking more money at a job, or begging for a second chance with a lost love, we’ve examined different evidence to determine which approach is best to make our case for what we want in life. Though they may not have taken a formal style, these strategies of persuasion form the basis of argumentative essays.

The function of an argumentative essay is to show that your assertion (opinion, theory, hypothesis) about some phenomenon or phenomena is correct or more truthful than others’. The art of argumentation is not an easy skill to acquire. Many people might think that if one simply has an opinion, one can argue it successfully, and these folks are always surprised when others don’t agree with them because their logic seems so correct. Argumentative writing is the act of forming reasons, making inductions, drawing conclusions, and applying them to the case in discussion; the operation of inferring propositions, not known or admitted as true, from facts or principles known, admitted, or proved to be true. It clearly explains the process of your reasoning from the known or assumed to the unknown. Without doing this you do not have an argument, you have only an assertion, an essay that is just your unsubstantiated opinion.

Argumentative essay assignments generally call for extensive research of literature or previously published material. Argumentative assignments may also require empirical research where the student collects data through interviews, surveys, observations, or experiments. Detailed research allows the student to learn about the topic and to understand different points of view regarding the topic so that she/he may choose a position and support it with the evidence collected during research. Regardless of the amount or type of research involved, argumentative essays must establish a clear thesis and follow sound reasoning.

A complete argument

Perhaps it is helpful to think of an essay in terms of a conversation or debate with a classmate. If I were to discuss the cause of World War II and its current effect on those who lived through the tumultuous time, there would be a beginning, middle, and end to the conversation. In fact, if I were to end the argument in the middle of my second point, questions would arise concerning the current effects on those who lived through the conflict. Therefore, the argumentative essay must be complete, and logically so, leaving no doubt as to its intent or argument.

The five-paragraph essay

A common method for writing an argumentative essay is the five-paragraph approach. This is, however, by no means the only formula for writing such essays. If it sounds straightforward, that is because it is; in fact, the method consists of (a) an introductory paragraph (b) three evidentiary body paragraphs that may include discussion of opposing views and (c) a conclusion.

Longer argumentative essays

Complex issues and detailed research call for complex and detailed essays. Argumentative essays discussing a number of research sources or empirical research will most certainly be longer than five paragraphs. Authors may have to discuss the context surrounding the topic, sources of information and their credibility, as well as a number of different opinions on the issue before concluding the essay. Many of these factors will be determined by the assignment.

How to Write and Argumentative Essay

How to Write and Argumentative Essay

For an argument essay to be effective, it must contain certain elements that will persuade the audience to see things from your perspective. For this reason, you must take a few minutes to plan and prepare before you jump into writing an argument essay.

Finding a Good Topic

To find good topic for an argument essay you should consider several issues that will have two conflicting points of view or very different conclusions. As you look over a list of topics you should find one that really sparks your interest.

While a strong interest in a topic is important, it’s not enough to be interested. You have to consider what position you can back up with reasoning and evidence. It’s one thing to have a strong belief, but when shaping an argument you’ll have to explain why your belief is reasonable and logical. As you explore the topics, make a mental list of points you could use as evidence for or against an issue.

Once you have selected a topic you feel strongly about, you should make a list of points for both sides of the argument and pick a side. One of your first objectives in your essay will be to present both sides of your issue with an assessment of each. Of course, you will conclude that one side (your side) is the best conclusion.

Argumentative Essay Writing Process

Please note that this is only a sample argumentative essay format. There are multiple ways to organize an argumentative paper.








WARNING : It’s fine to introduce new information or quotations in your conclusions, as long as the new points grow from your argument. New points might be more general, answering the “so what” question; they might be quite specific. Just avoid making new claims that need lots of additional support.

The structure of the argumentative essay is held together by the following:

This section provides an outline of what a good argumentative essay should look like when it is done. It is a very brief outline. Read further to find fuller descriptions of each section.

The best titles provide a brief and catchy summation of your essay’s argument. Suppose your essay will argue that cats make great house pets. A title that conveys your argument might be something like this: “The Hidden Genius of the Playful Cat.” This title is better than one that merely conveys your topic, such as “Are Cats Good Pets?” or “Assessing the Merits of Cats.” Even these topic-conveying titles, however, are better than “Midterm Essay #1.” Because your title will depend on your final argument, it is usually best to write the title after you have drafted the essay.

The First Paragraph: The Introduction

Start with an opening hook to catch your readers’ interest. One strategy is to pose a puzzle or question that your essay will then resolve. Whatever you do, keep it brief, and make sure that your opening hook provides a bridge to your thesis statement. Also be sure to avoid general statements that make sweeping and unsupportable claims (e.g. “Since the beginning of time, people have wondered…” or “Americans have always valued their material possessions.”). Another common flaw in introductions is the empty “warm up” sentence. These sentences might at first glance appear to have substance, but they really contribute nothing to your argument (e.g. “In order to assess the causes of the revolution, it is important that we carefully consider numerous factors.”)

The thesis statement should be one or two sentences long, and it should at minimum present your thesis to readers. Ideally, you can also briefly explain your main reasons behind the thesis. For instance, if your thesis will argue that “Cats are better than dogs,” include in the thesis a brief explanation of your main sub-arguments: “Cats are better than dogs because they possess a sense of independence, dignity, and hygiene that dogs lack.” As with the opening hook, keep the thesis statement brief. In a short essay (i.e. anything under ten double-spaced pages), the introduction should be just one paragraph total, about a half-page in length. Save specific evidence for the body.

Each paragraph in the body of the essay should start with a topic sentence. The topic sentence should announce the argument of the paragraph and make clear how the paragraph’s evidence will support the essay’s overall argument. The rest of the paragraph should then present and explain evidence that will support the topic sentence. In a sense, the phrase “topic sentence” is little misleading, because this sentence should convey the paragraph’s argument, not simply its topic.

Resist the temptation to cram too much into one paragraph. Each paragraph should develop one distinct idea. If you squeeze too many different ideas into one paragraph, your topic sentence will become muddled or it will introduce only one of the paragraph’s several ideas. When you see this happening, split the paragraph into two, each one starting with its own topic sentence.

Although you can make exceptions to this rule, each supporting body paragraph should be about a half-page in length. This length usually provides enough space for supporting evidence, without cramming too many ideas into one paragraph.

The Last Paragraph: The Conclusion

Some professors want the conclusion to provide a simple summary of your main argument. Other professors (like me) find this approach repetitious and boring. By the end of the body, a good essay will already have established its core argument. Use the conclusion to raise broader ideas that flow from your argument and evidence. Perhaps you can offer some lessons that people today should draw from your argument. Perhaps you see interesting parallels to another time, place, or issue. Perhaps you have found an interesting personal or emotional reaction to the material. Feel free to be speculative and thoughtful. After presenting careful evidence in the body of the essay, you have earned the right as an author to share broader ideas with your readers in the conclusion.

As you revise your argumentative essay, pay particular attention to these questions:

The German novelist Thomas Mann once observed, “A writer is somebody for whom writing is more difficult than it is for other people.” Good writing requires time and concentration, and even great writers can struggle. But the pleasures and rewards are considerable. Strong writing can allow you to articulate ideas with more clarity and force than possible through spoken words alone, and it can allow you to reach a wider audience. Becoming a good writer takes time and continual practice. Incremental gains are more common than dramatic overnight transformations. However, if you follow the steps above, and allot yourself enough time for the task, you will almost certainly see yourself become a better writer.

The list of top 20 argumentative essay topics will definitely leave people with an opinion, a perspective or a sour taste in their mouths. The fact remains that a good debate has the ability to arouse mixed feelings some of which may be latent and hostile feelings towards a particular issue. Additionally, disputes and arguments are likely to arise when there is a good controversial topic up for debate. Below are a few examples of argumentative topics that are likely to spark debate. To find good topic for an argumentative essay you should consider several issues that will have two conflicting points of view or very different conclusions. As you look over a list of topics you should find one that really sparks your interest.

1. Abortion

Abortion has been legal in the USA and in almost all western European countries since the early 1970s, and in Belgium and Ireland since the early 1990s. Although abortion was legal in the Soviet Union for several years prior to its collapse, abortion politics have subsequently come to the fore in some Eastern European countries (e.g., Poland) as a result of government attempts at scaling-back abortion. Legal access to abortion continues to be highly restricted in Mexico and in several Central and South American countries. Abortion is most intensely debated in the USA, where legal and congressional initiatives to amend the US Supreme Court’s recognition (Roe v.Wade, 1973) of a woman’s legal right to an abortion continue unabated. Abortion activism is pursued by several religious and secular organizations, and abortion politics dominate presidential and congressional elections and debates over judicial appointments. Grassroots efforts to restrict abortion have met with some success; post-Roe Supreme Court decisions have imposed various restrictions, most notably the imposition of spousal and parental notification requirements. Currently, the issue of late-term abortion is intensely debated (though most abortions are performed in the first trimester of pregnancy).

2. Death Penalty

The death penalty is the sentence of death after conviction following due process of law. The death penalty has been sanctioned by major juridical and religious traditions. It was defended during the Renaissance and Reformation by many Enlightenment thinkers such as Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau. This same period first saw the emergence of the movement to abolish the death penalty with the seminal work of Cesare Beccaria (1764), an end which was advocated in the nineteenth century by the jurists Jeremy Bentham and Samuel Romilly. The practice has undergone two key transformations in modern times: a restriction on the crimes and categories of offender punishable by death; and a transformation from public displays of excess to private, medicalized executions. These shifts have been explained either by the cultural dynamic of the privatization of disturbing events or by the transformation in technologies of power from punishment as a public and violent spectacle inflicting pain on the body to the emergence of disciplinary power and surveillance of the soul.

3. Disability

Common sense takes disability as a simple natural fact, but the sociology of disability emphasizes that disability has to be differentiated from impairment. Not every chronic health condition is acknowledged as disability. There are cultures in which the social fact of disability does not exist. Disability as a social problem has evolved as a product of the modern welfare state. With the beginning of modernity and, above all, during the period of industrialization, a line was drawn between ‘‘the disabled’’ and other poor and unemployed people. In the course of the twentieth century disability became a horizontal category of social stratification. Even today the ascription process is ambivalent: it includes rights and benefits as well as discrimination and segregation.

4. Discrimination

Discrimination refers to the differential, and often unequal, treatment of people who have been either formally or informally grouped into a particular class of persons. There are many forms of discrimination that are specified according to the ways in which particular groups are identified, including race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, marital status, class, age, disability, nationality, religion, or language. The United Nations Charter (1954) declared in article 55 that the UN will promote human rights and freedoms for all, ‘‘without distinction as to race, sex, language, and religion.’’ Later in 1958, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights added eight further grounds for possible discrimination, which were color, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, or other status.

A major social trend during the past century has been a global increase in the divorce rate. During the second half of the twentieth century divorce rates increased in most industrialized countries. Some of the social characteristics that appear to have contributed to the increase in the divorce rate are increased individualism, increasing marital expectations, the economic independence of women, and no-fault divorce laws. During the past 30 years there has been a gradual decrease in the US divorce rate. Divorce is a complex process influenced by many social and individual characteristics. Factors that have been found to be associated with the risk of divorce include age at marriage, premarital cohabitation, parental divorce, infidelity, alcohol and drug abuse, poor financial management, and domestic violence.

6. Domestic Violence

Domestic violence is a pattern of coercive behavior designed to exert power and control over a person in an intimate relationship through the use of intimidating, threatening, harmful, or harassing behavior. Victims of domestic violence are primarily female. Women are up to six times as likely to be assaulted by a partner or ex-partner than by a stranger and they are more likely to suffer an injury when their assailant is an intimate. Domestic violence is one of the leading causes of injury to women in the USA. Domestic violence rates also vary by age and economic status, with highest victimization rates among the poor and females between the ages of 16 and 24 years.

7. Environment

Humans have faced poor environmental conditions throughout history, but what we think of as ‘‘environmental problems’’ became more common and apparent with urbanization. In the USA urban air and water pollution attracted growing attention throughout the last century, and by the 1960s became recognized as significant problems. Celebration of the first ‘‘Earth Day’’ on April 22, 1970, helped transform ‘‘environmental quality’’ into a major social concern, and a wide range of environmental conditions from pollution to declining wilderness and wildlife became major social problems. Examining the socio economic processes that generate environmental problems is beyond the scope of this essay, but the nature of such problems can be clarified via use of an ecological perspective. Ecologists note that the environment provides many ‘‘services’’ for human beings (and all other species), but we can simplify these into three general types of functions that it performs for human societies. First, the environment provides us with the resources necessary for life, from clean air and water to food and shelter, as well as the natural resources used in industrial economies. In providing what ecologists term the ‘‘sustenance base’’ for human societies, the environment is serving a ‘‘supply depot’’ function. It supplies us with both renewable and non-renewable resources, and overuse of the former (e.g. water) may result in shortages and the latter (e.g. fossil fuels) in potential scarcities.

8. Eugenics

‘‘Eugenics’’ derives from the Greek word eugenes meaning ‘‘good in birth’’ or ‘‘noble in heredity.’’ Eugenics was developed in the late nineteenth century and means ideologies and activities aiming to improve the quality of the human race by selecting the ‘‘genetically fit.’’ It can entail (1) ‘‘positive’’ strategies to manipulate the heredity or breeding practices of ‘‘genetically superior’’ or ‘‘fit’’ people, or (2) ‘‘negative’’ strategies to exterminate the ‘‘genetically inferior.’’ Eugenics combines genetics as a scientific discipline with ideas from social planning and rational management developed during the industrial revolution. Eugenic ‘‘science’’ was considered to be the application of human genetic knowledge to social problems such as pauperism, alcoholism, criminality, violence, prostitution, mental illness, etc. In the early twentieth century, eugenics became a social movement first in Europe and then also in the United States. Public policies were developed which were rooted in eugenic ideology and justified on grounds of societal or state interests: those deemed ‘‘genetically unfit’’ were stigmatized as an economic and moral burden.

9. Gambling

While gambling is widely accepted today as a source of entertainment and recreation, a growing tendency to highlight problematic aspects is also to be noticed. Traditionally, heavy gamblers who sustained repeated losses and other adverse consequences were considered derelict, immoral, or criminal and for much of the twentieth century the prevailing view of excessive gambling continued to define that behavior as morally and legally reprehensible. A few decades ago, a new perspective emerged in which gambling is seen as pathological – as a form of addictive behavior in need of therapeutic treatment. The disease-concept (at least partly) replaced former deviance-definitions as a kind of willful norm violation, and excessive gambling increasingly is considered to be an expression of a mental disorder resembling the substance-related addictions. Since 1980, this change in perception has been strongly stimulated by – and reflected in – the evolving clinical classification and description of pathological gambling in the various editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) published by the American Psychiatric Association.

10. Genetic Engineering

Genetic engineering (GE; often also called biotechnology) is the technique and science of intervention into the genetic mechanisms of a biological organism. For sociologists of risk (e.g. Ulrich Beck) GE it is a paradigmatic case for risk society. There are two main applications: agriculture and food production, and medical genetics; furthermore, GE is used in different fields of industrial production. GE is one of the most contested technologies, especially in the medical field. Critics claim that there is a general trend towards ‘‘geneticization,’’ i.e. explaining social behavior with genetics (e.g. homosexuality, criminality, alcoholism). Since people cannot change their ‘‘genetic outfit’’ and genetics has prognostic power also for families and future generations, the status of and access to genetic information are important issues in legal regulation. ‘‘Genetic privacy’’ refers to third party access to genetic information. Further topics are: the combination of genetics and reproductive technologies (pre-implantation and prenatal diagnosis), research on human embryos and stem cells, human cloning, gene therapy and human enhancement.

11. Genocide

The term genocide was coined by Raphael Lemkin, a lawyer of Polish-Jewish origin, in 1944. It was legally defined in the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide in 1948. The Convention states that ‘‘genocide means . . . acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group.’’ Such acts as detailed in the Convention include: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to them; deliberately inflicting conditions of life calculated to bring about their physical destruction in whole or in part; imposing measures intended to prevent births within a group; and forcibly transferring children of the group to another one. This definition excludes groups defined by class and political affiliation. Contemporary human rights lawyers include these groups and count, e.g. the genocide of its own people by the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia as genocide.

12. Globalization

Appearing first in the 1960s, ‘‘globalization’’ has become a central but contested sociological concept. Although the origins of globalization can be found in the distant past, the concept was used widely after the end of the cold war, after which it was possible at least to imagine a ‘‘borderless’’ world in which people, goods, ideas, and images would flow with relative ease. The global division between capitalism and state socialism gave way to a more uncertain world in which capitalism was the dominant economic and social system. This coincided with the development of digital communication technologies from the late 1980s and their dramatic consequences for socioeconomic organization and interpersonal interaction. Global restructuring of states, financial systems, production technologies and the politics of neoliberalism in turn accompanied these developments, creating previously unprecedented levels of transnational interdependence.

13. Human Rights

‘‘Human rights are those liberties, immunities and benefits which, by accepted contemporary values, all human being should be able to claim ‘as of right’ of the society in which they live’’ (Encyclopedia of Public International Law 1995: 886). Human rights are constitutive for the contemporary discourse on the moral nature of society and individuals that is simultaneously a legal discourse on rights of individuals, and obligations and accountability of states and international organizations. As such they embody the ‘‘collective conscience’’ of a world community that is developing among citizens, judiciaries and legislatures still embedded in nation states. The paradigm of contemporary human rights emerged with the modern nation state and has its philosophical roots in the Enlightenment tradition of Europe and the United States. The Petition of Right in 1628 and the Bill of Rights in 1689 in Britain were followed by the American Declaration of Independence (1776), the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789), and the American Bill of Rights (1791).

14. Immigration

Sociologists look at migration as a social phenomenon. Their research is focused not on individual immigrants but on immigrant populations and their characteristics, because the characteristics of immigrant flows and immigrant populations are essential for understanding migration processes and the reaction to these processes from the receiving societies. The volume of the migration flow, its demographic structure (only young males, or whole families e.g.), the homogeneity or heterogeneity of the immigrant population according to educational attainments for instance, this kind of variable is relevant for the description of immigration as a social phenomenon. A second decision relates to the societal context of our field of study. Because migration is such a ubiquitous phenomenon it has occurred and still occurs under very different circumstances. The world counts to date millions and millions of people who have migrated out of their own free will or as compelled by ethnic cleansing, civil wars or natural disasters. The receiving societies differ fundamentally in nature and stability of state formation to mention only one important characteristic.

When most people think about racism, they think about the concept of individual prejudice – in other words, negative thoughts or stereotypes about a particular racial group. However, racism can also be embedded in the institutions and structures of social life. This type of racism can be called structural or institutional racism (hereafter ‘‘institutional racism’’), and it is significant in creating and maintaining the disparate outcomes that characterize the landscape of racial inequality. There are two main types of institutional racism. The first, which is called ‘‘direct,’’ occurs when policies are consciously designed to have discriminatory effects. These policies can be maintained through the legal system (such as in the case of Jim Crow in the USA); or through conscious institutional practice (such as redlining in residential real estate). The second type, ‘‘indirect’’ institutional racism, includes practices that have disparate racial impacts even without any intent to discriminate (such as network hiring in workplaces).

16. Sexual Harassment

Sexual harassment refers to unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or other forms of unwanted attention of a sexual nature, in a workplace or elsewhere. Sexual harassment includes unwelcome (sexual) jokes, remarks with sexual connotations, gossip, repeated requests to go out, and any form of unwanted touching or invasion of personal space, as well as sexual advances or assault. The overwhelming majority of victims are women, as well as adolescent and young workers. Perpetrators are most often individual men or groups of men. Same-sex harassment has also received attention, in particular, gender and sexual harassment among men. Besides consequences such as loss of a job or not being promoted, victims can experience adverse psychological effects such as confusion, discomfort, anxiety, anger, and stress.

17. Social Services

Social services are provisions that society makes to support individuals in need. Developed in the west to supplement family care, social services are found across the world and delivered mainly by social workers in various settings (state, voluntary agencies and commercial enterprises) in a ‘‘mixed economy of care.’’ Bureaucratized under the ‘‘new’’ managerialism and market forces, social services cover children, families, older people, disabled people, mentally ill people and offenders. Social workers care for and about people within a tension-filled environment that complicates delivery. An important issue is what causes need – personal inadequacies or structural factors. The Settlement Movement favored explanations involving structural causes. The Charity Organization Society (COS) originally popularized personal pathology, dividing claimants into deserving and undeserving ones. The former received stigmatized and inadequate services; the latter nothing. This tension continues as ‘‘welfare dependency.’’ Other sources of tension are: care-control dilemmas; low professional status; charitable giving or societal entitlements; state or market providers; and public or personal responsibility. Professionals and claimants have challenged analyses based on individual pathologies and demanded change through radical social work. Legislative fiat and social policies constrain their aspirations through reduced public expenditures and shifting service boundaries.

18. Surveillance

Surveillance, from the French verb, surveiller , means ‘‘watching over.’’ It involves the observation of behaviors, actions and activities to collect data and personal information on the part of governments, law enforcement agencies, and others such as credit and banking institutions, corporations, and research companies. Surveillance functions as social control. Michel Foucault’s concept of the Panopticon is a metaphor for surveillance society and accompanying disciplinary apparatuses. State power is no longer exercised through torture; rather, it is hidden in the everyday corpus of technologies to make populations self-police their own behavior. For example, why drive within the speed limit? Because someone (or some camera) may be watching.

19. Unemployment

All industrialized or post-industrial societies consider themselves to be working societies. Work – or more precisely, gainful work – defines an individual’s worth and status. It is for most people the main means of earning a living and frequently the prerequisite to be eligible for social security coverage. Unemployment endangers the livelihood of the unemployed individual and, possibly, also that of his or her family. It is the most important cause of poverty and is also frequently associated with problems such as crime, right-wing extremism, suicide, and illness. Therefore, unemployment is a principal social and political challenge. Usually, the unemployment of individuals with low education is markedly higher – generally by a factor of 2 to 4 – than that of highly qualified workers. Often, the unemployment of younger and older workers is also above average. Marked gender differences can be perceived in continental European countries, where women’s unemployment is often significantly higher than men’s, while there are hardly any gender differences in Anglo-Saxon countries with their liberal labor markets or in the Scandinavian countries with their greater emphasis on gender equality. In most cases, ethnic and racial minorities suffer significantly higher unemployment rates than the native-born majority.

20. Welfare

Welfare dependency refers to the use that people make of publicly provided cash benefits/transfers or human services. Welfare underuse is the term applied when people entitled to publicly provided benefits and services fail to do so. Welfare dependency is a feature of advanced industrial societies with developed welfare states, whose citizens enjoy specific ‘‘social’’ rights, for example, to social security, healthcare, social support and education. The premise on which the advocates of state welfare provision promoted it was that, as societies become more complex, the ‘‘states of dependency’’ that arise at various points in the human life-course may be ‘‘recognized as collective responsibilities’’ (Titmuss 1955: 64). The policy makers who fashioned the modern welfare states of the post-World War II era favored guaranteed basic minimum state provision, but they also, to varying degrees, expected people to depend so far as possible on income from paid employment and on support from their families.

Writing on Argumentative Topics

In the planning stage you will need to consider strong arguments for the “other” side. Then you’ll shoot them down!

Also, check our list of more than 100 argumentative essay topics , and argumentative essay examples .

Argumentative Essay Writing Service offers professional argumentative essay writing service for college students all over the world. As a student overloaded with written assignments you may need professional writing services to assist you.


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Do Argumentative Essays Have Topic Sentences?

Argumentative essays have topic sentences that support the thesis statement at the beginning of each paragraph. Each topic sentence should explain why your readers should agree with you. An effective way of making your argument rigid is by outlining opposing ideas and proving them wrong.

To make the topic sentence in each paragraph efficient, highlight the main idea at the beginning and let your audience know what you will be discussing. It must present the main idea that merges the whole paragraph (enhances coherence) and relates it to the thesis statement.

The various  purposes of topic sentences  in your argumentative essay include;

What Are Topic Sentences?

Topic sentences support your argumentative essay thesis statement. They unify the content of each paragraph by directing the order of featured sentences. Effective topic sentences enlighten your readers about the content of each paragraph and the approach you take to discuss and back up your claim.

Also see: Can you use Contractions in An Essay?

Often, readers look at the first sentence in each paragraph to identify your perspective. It is, therefore, vital (although not necessary) to incorporate your topic sentences at the beginning of every paragraph.

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How Do You Write A Topic Sentence In An Essay?

Like earlier stated, each paragraph of your argumentative essay should feature a topic sentence. You should integrate two key things; the topic and central point for all main body paragraphs. After the topic sentence, expand your key point with evidence and examples.

To write a commanding topic sentence, follow the below steps;

Write a Thesis Statement

Before developing your topic sentences, make sure you already have a thesis statement. The thesis statement summarizes the intent and purpose of the argumentative essay.

Design the Essay Outline and Draft Related Topic Sentences

Design an outline for your argumentative essay before the writing process. Here, you get to plan what you want to express in each paragraph and the evidence you will use.

While designing the outline, draft a topic sentence for each paragraph. Each should summarize the key point you want to explain in each paragraph. The topic sentences should get into more details than the thesis statement but ensure they are related.

Expand Using Reliable Evidence

Ensure each paragraph flows logically from the specific topic sentence. Expand the main point using examples, augmentation, or evidence. It helps keep your paragraphs on point as everything you write should associate with the central idea in the topic sentence.

Refine the Topic Sentences

Note that topic sentences are just simple statements. To ensure you remain relevant, revise them while writing to match the content outlined in each paragraph. Make your writing stronger and integrate clear and logical connections between your paragraphs using topic sentences. They help create smooth transitions.

Three Examples of a Topic Sentence

Below are three examples of effective topic sentences;

What Makes A Good Topic Sentence?

Although a topic sentence is a simple statement, there are various strategies you can use to make it outstanding. They include;

Make It Clear

Your topic sentence must include clear and specific words. Avoid using vague and empty words. For example, “Eggs are essential” is weak because it says very little. On the other hand, “Eggs provide essential nutrients” explains why they are suitable for you. You can then expound on the essential nutrients.

An unclear topic sentence makes it hard for your reader to know what to expect and makes the writing process more challenging.

Keep It Short and Be Concise

Readers often find it difficult to follow and understand wordy topic sentences. A short and tight topic sentence conveniently conveys its message. Additionally, it helps keep the reader focused and eager to read the rest of the paragraph.

It Should Be Interesting

Ensure the topic sentence is compelling to attract the reader’s attention and encourage him to read further. Incorporate surprising and interesting facts or unusual grammatical structure (you can use a rhetorical question to engage the reader more) to spark your readers’ interest. Do not state the obvious.

Use Active Voice

Active voice is more forceful and direct compared to passive voice. Ensure you use active voice by making sure the subject in a sentence performs the action.

Argumentative essays have topic sentences in each paragraph. Each provides organization and structure because you break down the thesis into smaller claims.

Consequently, the end product is a block of cohesive ideas.

What Makes A Good Topic Sentence In An Argumentative Essay?

A topic sentence lets the reader know what the paragraph entails. It should guide the reader through your explanation and supporting evidence by enlightening them where you are. A good topic sentence in an argumentative essay should;

Note:  You cannot discuss your main points in one paragraph. You have to develop many topic sentences that sufficiently cover the thesis statement. Ensure you can reasonably discuss each topic sentence in a short space.

How Do You Write A Topic Sentence For An Argumentative Essay?

When writing a  topic sentence  for an argumentative essay, ensure you observe the following;

Construct a Mini-Thesis Statement

While the thesis statement serves as a road map to your argumentative essay, the topic sentence guides your readers through a paragraph. View each topic sentence as a mini-thesis, where you organize and develop each paragraph. Ensure it is clear, focused, and well explained.

Outline Desired Topic Sentences

Since all topic sentences act as sub-points to the main essay, note them down on a blank document. Ensure each relates to the thesis statement.

Revise and change accordingly if they don’t reflect the content of the paragraphs while indulging in the writing process.

Incorporate Terms from Your Thesis Statement

Feature some words from the thesis statement into some of the topic sentences. It enhances a sense of coherence throughout your argumentative essay. It ensures your readers have a general idea about how a particular point expounds on the main thesis statement.

Therefore, a rigid topic sentence should;

Transition Sentences For Argumentative Essays

Transition sentences are used in an argumentative essay to bridge the gaps between paragraphs. Transition sentences are also known as bridge sentences. They are used to connect ideas that are unrelated and to show thе reader a nеw thought. The purpose of using transition sentences іs to connect ideas that are nоt clearly related. The use of transition sentences in an argumentative essay is to bridge the gap between thе ideas. The use of transition sentences in an argumentative essay shows thе reader how the ideas are related to each other and also helps to keep the essay organized.

What is an argumentative essay?

An argumentative essay is a piece of writing that takes a stance on an issue. The author presents аn argument and uses research to convince thе reader to agree with them. The goal of аn argumentative essay іs tо provide evidence that supports the argument.

Argumentative essay format is different from other types оf essays. An argumentative essay is written to convince the reader that the point of view yоu have chosen is thе correct one. To do this, you should provide evidence to support your claim. The evidence can come in different forms. You mаy use:

The goal of аn argumentative essay is to convince thе reader that your point of view is correct. To do this, you should use evidence to support your claim. The evidence may come in different forms, such as:

When you’re writing an argumentative essay, the first thing you should do is choose a position on the argument. The position you choose will define the type of thesis statement yоu will write.

The position you choose should be debatable. You can’t write an argumentative essay that is not controversial. You also shouldn’t write an argumentative essay that is too simple. An argumentative essay should be debatable and have a thesis that is debatable аs well.

Once you have a position on the argument, yоu should write a thesis statement. A thesis statement is the sentence in the middle оf your introduction that states the main argument.

Once yоu have the thesis statement, you should write the introduction. The introduction is the first thing the reader will sее and it should contain a clear idea of what the essay is going to be about.

An introduction is a good place tо introduce the topic and briefly state your position on it. You can write a thesis statement at the end of thе introduction tо help readers understand what your argument is. You also should briefly mention the research you have done in support of your argument.

After the introduction, you should write the body оf the essay. The body is the main part of thе essay. Each paragraph in the body should have a point. The paragraphs should have arguments tо back thе thesis statement and provide evidence to support it. Thе paragraphs should be organized and structured according to the main points you have made in the introduction.

The Introduction

In your argumentative essay introduction, you should state the main idea of your paper. You should also provide your thesis statement. The introduction paragraph is usually one paragraph. You should write the following things in your argumentative essay introduction:

The thesis statement іs your statement that states the main idea оf the essay. It should be something that the reader can easily relate to or identify with. It should not be too general or too narrow.

Your introduction paragraph іs also the place to introduce your sources. It should be a place where yоu can state the sources you have used for your arguments and thе information you have gathered.

The introduction of your essay should bе strong. It should include the following elements:

In the body paragraphs of the essay, you should provide all the details to support your point of view. You can start the body paragraphs with a topic sentence that states the point оf your argument. Then, you can support your argument with evidence and examples. Finally, in thе conclusion, you can restate your thesis statement and the point of the argument.

The body of your essay should be divided into paragraphs. Each paragraph should present a single argument. Each argument should bе supported with evidence from the text. Thе evidence should bе explained in detail and should be presented in a logical order. You should also use transitions to link the paragraphs together. The last paragraph should end with a conclusion that summarizes your main points and reinforces your thesis.

The Conclusion

In your conclusion, you should restate your argument , summarize your main points, and offer a suggestion for the reader to think about. You should also remind the reader of the thesis statement in the introduction.

The best way to write a good conclusion is to restate your main points and offer your reader a final thought.

The conclusion should be written after all of the paragraphs have been written. You should not repeat the thesis statement in this section. Instead, restate your point of view, but offer your reader some final thoughts on the topic.

The conclusion should also be written in a way that it іs clear to the reader how your argument is complete. For example, you might write, “The key to writing a successful argumentative essay is to first be able to clearly state your position on thе issue аnd then prove why your point of view is the best.

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  6. Narrative essay


  1. Teaching sentence structure Essay

    Nouns and pronouns in the genitive instance ( see California & # 8217 ; s ) are used like adjectives.PRACTICE 4 Identifying Partss of address.Diagram the undermentioned sentences

  2. Sentence Structure Essay

    In building a sentence. the author brings about what he has in head. it is non pleasant for the portion of the reader to read a sentence where the words contained don't relate with each other

  3. How to Write and Argumentative Essay: Format, Outline, Structure, Topics, Examples

    The argumentative essay is a genre of writing that requires the student to investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner

  4. The Argumentative Essay

    The argumentative essay is a specific type of writing in which a student chooses a topic (often a controversial topic), researches it extensively, and then uses the evidence gathered in their research process

  5. Do Argumentative Essays Have Topic Sentences?

    Argumentative essays have topic sentences that support the thesis statement at the beginning of each paragraph. Each topic sentence should explain why your readers should agree with you

  6. Argumentative Essay Structure and Its Importance for the Perfect Essay

    Argumentative essay structure and its features as the helpers for easier and better writing. The article contains real tips and tricks for students to make their life easier, skills sharper and writing quicker

  7. Good Transition Words for Argumentative Essays 2023

    Transition sentences are used in an argumentative essay to bridge the gaps between paragraphs. The use of transition sentences in an argumentative essay is to bridge the gap between thе ideas

  8. Sentence starters for argumentative essays

    Sentence starters for argumentative essays - Stop receiving bad marks with these custom essay advice original papers at reasonable costs available here will turn your education into pleasure confide your report