Choose Your Test

Sat / act prep online guides and tips, 3 strong argumentative essay examples, analyzed.

author image

General Education


Need to defend your opinion on an issue? Argumentative essays are one of the most popular types of essays you’ll write in school. They combine persuasive arguments with fact-based research, and, when done well, can be powerful tools for making someone agree with your point of view. If you’re struggling to write an argumentative essay or just want to learn more about them, seeing examples can be a big help.

After giving an overview of this type of essay, we provide three argumentative essay examples. After each essay, we explain in-depth how the essay was structured, what worked, and where the essay could be improved. We end with tips for making your own argumentative essay as strong as possible.

What Is an Argumentative Essay?

An argumentative essay is an essay that uses evidence and facts to support the claim it’s making. Its purpose is to persuade the reader to agree with the argument being made.

A good argumentative essay will use facts and evidence to support the argument, rather than just the author’s thoughts and opinions. For example, say you wanted to write an argumentative essay stating that Charleston, SC is a great destination for families. You couldn’t just say that it’s a great place because you took your family there and enjoyed it. For it to be an argumentative essay, you need to have facts and data to support your argument, such as the number of child-friendly attractions in Charleston, special deals you can get with kids, and surveys of people who visited Charleston as a family and enjoyed it. The first argument is based entirely on feelings, whereas the second is based on evidence that can be proven.

The standard five paragraph format is common, but not required, for argumentative essays. These essays typically follow one of two formats: the Toulmin model or the Rogerian model.

3 Good Argumentative Essay Examples + Analysis

Below are three examples of argumentative essays, written by yours truly in my school days, as well as analysis of what each did well and where it could be improved.

Argumentative Essay Example 1

Proponents of this idea state that it will save local cities and towns money because libraries are expensive to maintain. They also believe it will encourage more people to read because they won’t have to travel to a library to get a book; they can simply click on what they want to read and read it from wherever they are. They could also access more materials because libraries won’t have to buy physical copies of books; they can simply rent out as many digital copies as they need.

However, it would be a serious mistake to replace libraries with tablets. First, digital books and resources are associated with less learning and more problems than print resources. A study done on tablet vs book reading found that people read 20-30% slower on tablets, retain 20% less information, and understand 10% less of what they read compared to people who read the same information in print. Additionally, staring too long at a screen has been shown to cause numerous health problems, including blurred vision, dizziness, dry eyes, headaches, and eye strain, at much higher instances than reading print does. People who use tablets and mobile devices excessively also have a higher incidence of more serious health issues such as fibromyalgia, shoulder and back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and muscle strain. I know that whenever I read from my e-reader for too long, my eyes begin to feel tired and my neck hurts. We should not add to these problems by giving people, especially young people, more reasons to look at screens.

Second, it is incredibly narrow-minded to assume that the only service libraries offer is book lending. Libraries have a multitude of benefits, and many are only available if the library has a physical location. Some of these benefits include acting as a quiet study space, giving people a way to converse with their neighbors, holding classes on a variety of topics, providing jobs, answering patron questions, and keeping the community connected. One neighborhood found that, after a local library instituted community events such as play times for toddlers and parents, job fairs for teenagers, and meeting spaces for senior citizens, over a third of residents reported feeling more connected to their community. Similarly, a Pew survey conducted in 2015 found that nearly two-thirds of American adults feel that closing their local library would have a major impact on their community. People see libraries as a way to connect with others and get their questions answered, benefits tablets can’t offer nearly as well or as easily.

While replacing libraries with tablets may seem like a simple solution, it would encourage people to spend even more time looking at digital screens, despite the myriad issues surrounding them. It would also end access to many of the benefits of libraries that people have come to rely on. In many areas, libraries are such an important part of the community network that they could never be replaced by a simple object.

The author begins by giving an overview of the counter-argument, then the thesis appears as the first sentence in the third paragraph. The essay then spends the rest of the paper dismantling the counter argument and showing why readers should believe the other side.

What this essay does well:


Argumentative Essay Example 2

There are multiple drugs available to treat malaria, and many of them work well and save lives, but malaria eradication programs that focus too much on them and not enough on prevention haven’t seen long-term success in Sub-Saharan Africa. A major program to combat malaria was WHO’s Global Malaria Eradication Programme. Started in 1955, it had a goal of eliminating malaria in Africa within the next ten years. Based upon previously successful programs in Brazil and the United States, the program focused mainly on vector control. This included widely distributing chloroquine and spraying large amounts of DDT. More than one billion dollars was spent trying to abolish malaria. However, the program suffered from many problems and in 1969, WHO was forced to admit that the program had not succeeded in eradicating malaria. The number of people in Sub-Saharan Africa who contracted malaria as well as the number of malaria deaths had actually increased over 10% during the time the program was active.

One of the major reasons for the failure of the project was that it set uniform strategies and policies. By failing to consider variations between governments, geography, and infrastructure, the program was not nearly as successful as it could have been. Sub-Saharan Africa has neither the money nor the infrastructure to support such an elaborate program, and it couldn’t be run the way it was meant to. Most African countries don't have the resources to send all their people to doctors and get shots, nor can they afford to clear wetlands or other malaria prone areas. The continent’s spending per person for eradicating malaria was just a quarter of what Brazil spent. Sub-Saharan Africa simply can’t rely on a plan that requires more money, infrastructure, and expertise than they have to spare.

Additionally, the widespread use of chloroquine has created drug resistant parasites which are now plaguing Sub-Saharan Africa. Because chloroquine was used widely but inconsistently, mosquitoes developed resistance, and chloroquine is now nearly completely ineffective in Sub-Saharan Africa, with over 95% of mosquitoes resistant to it. As a result, newer, more expensive drugs need to be used to prevent and treat malaria, which further drives up the cost of malaria treatment for a region that can ill afford it.

Instead of developing plans to treat malaria after the infection has incurred, programs should focus on preventing infection from occurring in the first place. Not only is this plan cheaper and more effective, reducing the number of people who contract malaria also reduces loss of work/school days which can further bring down the productivity of the region.

One of the cheapest and most effective ways of preventing malaria is to implement insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs).  These nets provide a protective barrier around the person or people using them. While untreated bed nets are still helpful, those treated with insecticides are much more useful because they stop mosquitoes from biting people through the nets, and they help reduce mosquito populations in a community, thus helping people who don’t even own bed nets.  Bed nets are also very effective because most mosquito bites occur while the person is sleeping, so bed nets would be able to drastically reduce the number of transmissions during the night. In fact, transmission of malaria can be reduced by as much as 90% in areas where the use of ITNs is widespread. Because money is so scarce in Sub-Saharan Africa, the low cost is a great benefit and a major reason why the program is so successful. Bed nets cost roughly 2 USD to make, last several years, and can protect two adults. Studies have shown that, for every 100-1000 more nets are being used, one less child dies of malaria. With an estimated 300 million people in Africa not being protected by mosquito nets, there’s the potential to save three million lives by spending just a few dollars per person.

Reducing the number of people who contract malaria would also reduce poverty levels in Africa significantly, thus improving other aspects of society like education levels and the economy. Vector control is more effective than treatment strategies because it means fewer people are getting sick. When fewer people get sick, the working population is stronger as a whole because people are not put out of work from malaria, nor are they caring for sick relatives. Malaria-afflicted families can typically only harvest 40% of the crops that healthy families can harvest. Additionally, a family with members who have malaria spends roughly a quarter of its income treatment, not including the loss of work they also must deal with due to the illness. It’s estimated that malaria costs Africa 12 billion USD in lost income every year. A strong working population creates a stronger economy, which Sub-Saharan Africa is in desperate need of.  

This essay begins with an introduction, which ends with the thesis (that malaria eradication plans in Sub-Saharan Africa should focus on prevention rather than treatment). The first part of the essay lays out why the counter argument (treatment rather than prevention) is not as effective, and the second part of the essay focuses on why prevention of malaria is the better path to take.


Argumentative Essay Example 3

There are many ways payments could work. They could be in the form of a free-market approach, where athletes are able to earn whatever the market is willing to pay them, it could be a set amount of money per athlete, or student athletes could earn income from endorsements, autographs, and control of their likeness, similar to the way top Olympians earn money.

Proponents of the idea believe that, because college athletes are the ones who are training, participating in games, and bringing in audiences, they should receive some sort of compensation for their work. If there were no college athletes, the NCAA wouldn’t exist, college coaches wouldn’t receive there (sometimes very high) salaries, and brands like Nike couldn’t profit from college sports. In fact, the NCAA brings in roughly $1 billion in revenue a year, but college athletes don’t receive any of that money in the form of a paycheck. Additionally, people who believe college athletes should be paid state that paying college athletes will actually encourage them to remain in college longer and not turn pro as quickly, either by giving them a way to begin earning money in college or requiring them to sign a contract stating they’ll stay at the university for a certain number of years while making an agreed-upon salary.  

Supporters of this idea point to Zion Williamson, the Duke basketball superstar, who, during his freshman year, sustained a serious knee injury. Many argued that, even if he enjoyed playing for Duke, it wasn’t worth risking another injury and ending his professional career before it even began for a program that wasn’t paying him. Williamson seems to have agreed with them and declared his eligibility for the NCAA draft later that year. If he was being paid, he may have stayed at Duke longer. In fact, roughly a third of student athletes surveyed stated that receiving a salary while in college would make them “strongly consider” remaining collegiate athletes longer before turning pro.

Paying athletes could also stop the recruitment scandals that have plagued the NCAA. In 2018, the NCAA stripped the University of Louisville's men's basketball team of its 2013 national championship title because it was discovered coaches were using sex workers to entice recruits to join the team. There have been dozens of other recruitment scandals where college athletes and recruits have been bribed with anything from having their grades changed, to getting free cars, to being straight out bribed. By paying college athletes and putting their salaries out in the open, the NCAA could end the illegal and underhanded ways some schools and coaches try to entice athletes to join.

People who argue against the idea of paying college athletes believe the practice could be disastrous for college sports. By paying athletes, they argue, they’d turn college sports into a bidding war, where only the richest schools could afford top athletes, and the majority of schools would be shut out from developing a talented team (though some argue this already happens because the best players often go to the most established college sports programs, who typically pay their coaches millions of dollars per year). It could also ruin the tight camaraderie of many college teams if players become jealous that certain teammates are making more money than they are.

They also argue that paying college athletes actually means only a small fraction would make significant money. Out of the 350 Division I athletic departments, fewer than a dozen earn any money. Nearly all the money the NCAA makes comes from men’s football and basketball, so paying college athletes would make a small group of men--who likely will be signed to pro teams and begin making millions immediately out of college--rich at the expense of other players.

Those against paying college athletes also believe that the athletes are receiving enough benefits already. The top athletes already receive scholarships that are worth tens of thousands per year, they receive free food/housing/textbooks, have access to top medical care if they are injured, receive top coaching, get travel perks and free gear, and can use their time in college as a way to capture the attention of professional recruiters. No other college students receive anywhere near as much from their schools.

People on this side also point out that, while the NCAA brings in a massive amount of money each year, it is still a non-profit organization. How? Because over 95% of those profits are redistributed to its members’ institutions in the form of scholarships, grants, conferences, support for Division II and Division III teams, and educational programs. Taking away a significant part of that revenue would hurt smaller programs that rely on that money to keep running.

While both sides have good points, it’s clear that the negatives of paying college athletes far outweigh the positives. College athletes spend a significant amount of time and energy playing for their school, but they are compensated for it by the scholarships and perks they receive. Adding a salary to that would result in a college athletic system where only a small handful of athletes (those likely to become millionaires in the professional leagues) are paid by a handful of schools who enter bidding wars to recruit them, while the majority of student athletics and college athletic programs suffer or even shut down for lack of money. Continuing to offer the current level of benefits to student athletes makes it possible for as many people to benefit from and enjoy college sports as possible.

This argumentative essay follows the Rogerian model. It discusses each side, first laying out multiple reasons people believe student athletes should be paid, then discussing reasons why the athletes shouldn’t be paid. It ends by stating that college athletes shouldn’t be paid by arguing that paying them would destroy college athletics programs and cause them to have many of the issues professional sports leagues have.


3 Tips for Writing a Good Argumentative Essay

Now that you’ve seen examples of what good argumentative essay samples look like, follow these three tips when crafting your own essay.

#1: Make Your Thesis Crystal Clear

The thesis is the key to your argumentative essay; if it isn’t clear or readers can’t find it easily, your entire essay will be weak as a result. Always make sure that your thesis statement is easy to find. The typical spot for it is the final sentence of the introduction paragraph, but if it doesn’t fit in that spot for your essay, try to at least put it as the first or last sentence of a different paragraph so it stands out more.

Also make sure that your thesis makes clear what side of the argument you’re on. After you’ve written it, it’s a great idea to show your thesis to a couple different people--classmates are great for this. Just by reading your thesis they should be able to understand what point you’ll be trying to make with the rest of your essay.

#2: Show Why the Other Side Is Weak

When writing your essay, you may be tempted to ignore the other side of the argument and just focus on your side, but don’t do this. The best argumentative essays really tear apart the other side to show why readers shouldn’t believe it. Before you begin writing your essay, research what the other side believes, and what their strongest points are. Then, in your essay, be sure to mention each of these and use evidence to explain why they’re incorrect/weak arguments. That’ll make your essay much more effective than if you only focused on your side of the argument.

#3: Use Evidence to Support Your Side

Remember, an essay can’t be an argumentative essay if it doesn’t support its argument with evidence. For every point you make, make sure you have facts to back it up. Some examples are previous studies done on the topic, surveys of large groups of people, data points, etc. There should be lots of numbers in your argumentative essay that support your side of the argument. This will make your essay much stronger compared to only relying on your own opinions to support your argument.

Summary: Argumentative Essay Sample

Argumentative essays are persuasive essays that use facts and evidence to support their side of the argument. Most argumentative essays follow either the Toulmin model or the Rogerian model. By reading good argumentative essay examples, you can learn how to develop your essay and provide enough support to make readers agree with your opinion. When writing your essay, remember to always make your thesis clear, show where the other side is weak, and back up your opinion with data and evidence.

What's Next?

Do you need to write an argumentative essay as well?  Check out our guide on the best argumentative essay topics for ideas!

You'll probably also need to write research papers for school.  We've got you covered with 113 potential topics for research papers.

Your college admissions essay may end up being one of the most important essays you write. Follow our step-by-step guide on writing a personal statement to have an essay that'll impress colleges.

Need more help with this topic? Check out Tutorbase!

Our vetted tutor database includes a range of experienced educators who can help you polish an essay for English or explain how derivatives work for Calculus. You can use dozens of filters and search criteria to find the perfect person for your needs.

Connect With a Tutor Now

Christine graduated from Michigan State University with degrees in Environmental Biology and Geography and received her Master's from Duke University. In high school she scored in the 99th percentile on the SAT and was named a National Merit Finalist. She has taught English and biology in several countries.

Student and Parent Forum

Our new student and parent forum, at , allow you to interact with your peers and the PrepScholar staff. See how other students and parents are navigating high school, college, and the college admissions process. Ask questions; get answers.

Join the Conversation

Ask a Question Below

Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!

Improve With Our Famous Guides

The 5 Strategies You Must Be Using to Improve 160+ SAT Points

How to Get a Perfect 1600, by a Perfect Scorer

Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section:

Score 800 on SAT Math

Score 800 on SAT Reading

Score 800 on SAT Writing

Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section:

Score 600 on SAT Math

Score 600 on SAT Reading

Score 600 on SAT Writing

Free Complete Official SAT Practice Tests

What SAT Target Score Should You Be Aiming For?

15 Strategies to Improve Your SAT Essay

The 5 Strategies You Must Be Using to Improve 4+ ACT Points

How to Get a Perfect 36 ACT, by a Perfect Scorer

Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section:

36 on ACT English

36 on ACT Math

36 on ACT Reading

36 on ACT Science

Series: How to Get to 24 on Each ACT Section:

24 on ACT English

24 on ACT Math

24 on ACT Reading

24 on ACT Science

What ACT target score should you be aiming for?

ACT Vocabulary You Must Know

ACT Writing: 15 Tips to Raise Your Essay Score

How to Get Into Harvard and the Ivy League

How to Get a Perfect 4.0 GPA

How to Write an Amazing College Essay

What Exactly Are Colleges Looking For?

Is the ACT easier than the SAT? A Comprehensive Guide

Should you retake your SAT or ACT?

When should you take the SAT or ACT?

Stay Informed

argumentative sentence sample

Get the latest articles and test prep tips!

Looking for Graduate School Test Prep?

Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here:

GRE Online Prep Blog

GMAT Online Prep Blog

TOEFL Online Prep Blog

Holly R. "I am absolutely overjoyed and cannot thank you enough for helping me!”

Have a language expert improve your writing

Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, generate accurate citations for free.

How to Write Topic Sentences | 4 Steps, Examples & Purpose

Published on July 21, 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on March 27, 2023.

How to Write Topic Sentences

Every paragraph in your paper needs a topic sentence . The topic sentence expresses what the paragraph is about. It should include two key things:

After the topic sentence, you expand on the point zwith evidence and examples.

To build a well-structured argument, you can also use your topic sentences to transition smoothly between paragraphs and show the connections between your points.

Table of contents

Writing strong topic sentences, topic sentences as transitions between paragraphs, topic sentences that introduce more than one paragraph, where does the topic sentence go, frequently asked questions about topic sentences.

Topic sentences aren’t the first or the last thing you write—you’ll develop them throughout the writing process. To make sure every topic sentence and paragraph serves your argument, follow these steps.

Step 1: Write a thesis statement

The first step to developing your topic sentences is to make sure you have a strong thesis statement . The thesis statement sums up the purpose and argument of the whole paper.

Thesis statement example

Food is an increasingly urgent environmental issue, and to reduce humans’ impact on the planet, it is necessary to change global patterns of food production and consumption.

Step 2: Make an essay outline and draft topic sentences

Next, you should make an outline of your essay’s structure , planning what you want to say in each paragraph and what evidence you’ll use.

At this stage, you can draft a topic sentence that sums up the main point you want to make in each paragraph. The topic sentences should be more specific than the thesis statement, but always clearly related to it.

Topic sentence example

Research has consistently shown that the meat industry has a significant environmental impact .

Step 3: Expand with evidence

The rest of the paragraph should flow logically from the topic sentence, expanding on the point with evidence, examples, or argumentation. This helps keep your paragraphs focused: everything you write should relate to the central idea expressed in the topic sentence.

In our example, you might mention specific research studies and statistics that support your point about the overall impact of the meat industry.

Step 4: Refine your topic sentences

Topic sentences usually start out as simple statements. But it’s important to revise them as you write, making sure they match the content of each paragraph.

A good topic sentence is specific enough to give a clear sense of what to expect from the paragraph, but general enough that it doesn’t give everything away. You can think of it like a signpost: it should tell the reader which direction your argument is going in.

To make your writing stronger and ensure the connections between your paragraphs are clear and logical, you can also use topic sentences to create smooth transitions.

As you write each topic sentence, ask yourself: how does this point relate to what you wrote in the preceding paragraph? It’s often helpful to use transition words in your topic sentences to show the connections between your ideas.

Emphasize and expand

If the paragraph goes into more detail or gives another example to make the same point, the topic sentence can use words that imply emphasis or similarity (for example, furthermore , indeed , in fact , also ).

Indeed , cattle farming alone is responsible for a large proportion of greenhouse gas emissions.

Summarize and anticipate

If the paragraph turns to a different aspect of the same subject, the topic sentence can briefly sum up the previous paragraph and anticipate the new information that will appear in this one.

While beef clearly has the most dramatic footprint, other animal products also have serious impacts in terms of emissions, water and land use.

Compare and contrast

If the paragraph makes a comparison or introduces contrasting information, the topic sentence can use words that highlight difference or conflict (for example, in contrast , however , yet , on the other hand ).

However , the environmental costs of dietary choices are not always clear-cut; in some cases, small-scale livestock farming is more sustainable than plant-based food production.

You can also imply contrast or complicate your argument by formulating the topic sentence as a question.

Is veganism the only solution, or are there more sustainable ways of producing meat and dairy?

Scribbr Citation Checker New

The AI-powered Citation Checker helps you avoid common mistakes such as:

argumentative sentence sample

Sometimes you can use a topic sentence to introduce several paragraphs at once.

All of the examples above address the environmental impact of meat-eating versus veganism. Together, they make up one coherent part of a larger argument, so the first paragraph could use a topic sentence to introduce the whole section.

In countries with high levels of meat consumption, a move towards plant-based diets is the most obvious route to making food more sustainable. Research has consistently shown that the meat industry has significant environmental impacts.

The topic sentence usually goes at the very start of a paragraph, but sometimes it can come later to indicate a change of direction in the paragraph’s argument.

Given this evidence of the meat industry’s impact on the planet, veganism seems like the only environmentally responsible option for consumers. However, the environmental costs of dietary choices are not always clear-cut; in some cases, small-scale livestock farming is more sustainable than plant-based food production.

In this example, the first sentence summarizes the main point that has been made so far. Then the topic sentence indicates that this paragraph will address evidence that complicates or contradicts that point.

In more advanced or creative forms of academic writing , you can play with the placement of topic sentences to build suspense and give your arguments more force. But if in doubt, to keep your research paper clear and focused, the easiest method is to place the topic sentence at the start of the paragraph.

View topic sentences in an example essay

A topic sentence is a sentence that expresses the main point of a paragraph . Everything else in the paragraph should relate to the topic sentence.

Topic sentences help keep your writing focused and guide the reader through your argument.

In an essay or paper , each paragraph should focus on a single idea. By stating the main idea in the topic sentence, you clarify what the paragraph is about for both yourself and your reader.

The topic sentence usually comes at the very start of the paragraph .

However, sometimes you might start with a transition sentence to summarize what was discussed in previous paragraphs, followed by the topic sentence that expresses the focus of the current paragraph.

Let’s say you’re writing a five-paragraph  essay about the environmental impacts of dietary choices. Here are three examples of topic sentences you could use for each of the three body paragraphs :

Each of these sentences expresses one main idea – by listing them in order, we can see the overall structure of the essay at a glance. Each paragraph will expand on the topic sentence with relevant detail, evidence, and arguments.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

McCombes, S. (2023, March 27). How to Write Topic Sentences | 4 Steps, Examples & Purpose. Scribbr. Retrieved May 31, 2023, from

Is this article helpful?

Shona McCombes

Shona McCombes

Other students also liked, example of a great essay | explanations, tips & tricks, how to write a thesis statement | 4 steps & examples, transition words & phrases | list & examples, what is your plagiarism score.

Argumentative Essay Guide

Argumentative Essay Examples

Nova A.

Argumentative Essay Examples: Samples & Tips

Published on: Feb 15, 2018

Last updated on: Feb 23, 2023

argumentative essay examples

On This Page On This Page

When it comes to writing  argumentative essays , getting good grades is no stroll in the park. Writing an argumentative essay requires critical thinking and a vast pool of knowledge on the topic.

Read on to find out how to master the art of writing argumentative essays using argumentative essay examples as a guide.

Good Argumentative Essay Examples

A good argumentative essay is one that diligently presents facts that supports a viewpoint over another. Similar to a persuasive essay, it brings to bear arguments and opposing arguments. It evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of an argument and then proves it right or wrong.

It is designed to convince the reader to accept a certain point of view. Facts and logical analogy will serve as the heart and soul of an argumentative essay, from the beginning to the very end.

Below are some good argumentative essay examples written by our professional essay writers.

5 Paragraph Argumentative Essay Examples

The traditional  argumentative essay outline  for 5 paragraphs essays consist of one introduction, three body paragraphs, and one conclusion

Here are examples of 5 paragraph argumentative essays. The following example is a step-by-step guide for crafting an argumentative essay.

5 Paragraph Argumentative Essay

Argumentative Essay Examples For Middle School

Middle school essays are pretty basic and easier to debate. The following are some examples of middle school argumentative essay:

Argument Essay Example For Middle School

Argumentative Essay Examples For High School Students

Here are some amazing argumentative essay examples for high school students. Read them and get an idea of how you can make your argumentative essay flawless.

Counter Argument Essay Example

Evaluation Argumentative Essay Example

High School Argumentative Essay Example

Argumentative Essay Examples For College Students

When it comes to the college level, essay writing becomes more complicated. At this level, students have to write complex papers like research papers or thesis papers.

Additionally, college students are assumed to be good at writing a high-quality argumentative essay. This is because instructors automatically assume they have been writing essays since middle school.

Here are some good argumentative essay examples that all college students can use as a guide for their next essay assignment:

Argumentative Essay Example For College

Sample Argumentative Essay For College

Sample Argumentative Essay On Smoking

Argumentative Essay On Gun Control

Argumentative Essay Example for O Level

The O levels course outline is extremely demanding. O-level pupils must be excellent writers and speakers of the English language.

The following example can assist you in creating an argumentative essay if you are an O Level student.

Argumentative Essay Example for 6th Grade

Sixth-graders are in the midst of learning new things every day, which is a fantastic time to teach them about this kind of writing. As they enjoy convincing others of their viewpoint, writing an argumentative essay is an exciting activity for them.

At this level, argumentative essays are typically simple and highly convincing. The subsequent example will provide you with more information on how to write an argumentative essay at the 6th-grade level.

Argumentative Essay Example for 7th Grade

There isn't much of a difference between a 6th-grader and a 7th-grader in terms of academic achievement. They're both improving their writing and study abilities.

Here's another example to assist you in producing a strong argumentative essay.

Short Argumentative Essay Example

There is no precise word count for an argumentative essay. It just has to persuade the reader and give the author's message to the intended audience.

It can be short or lengthy. It would be considered correct as long as there's a discussion in it.

This is a sample of an argumentative essay.

Argumentative Essay Writing Tips

When the comes to writing high-quality argumentative essays there are some solid tips you need to know.

Below are 10 useful tips you should keep in mind while crafting an argumentative essay.

1. Choose Engaging Topics

Choosing an engaging topic will make you feel enthusiastic from the moment you start drafting down words in your essay. An  argumentative essay topic  should always be debatable, arguable, and researchable.

2. Choose the Structure

An argumentative essay can be structured in three ways: Classical, Toulmin, and Rogerian. Choose any of these  types of arguments  to give your essay a logical flow and purpose.

3. Conduct Quality Research

Extensive research goes a long way in producing a good argumentative essay. The more you study, the broader your horizons will be, and you will have just that much more supporting evidence.

4. Credible Sources

You can’t expect someone to agree with opposing views without strong and authentic evidence. If you want someone to change their perspective, you need to persuade them with facts from credible sources.

5. Use Counter Arguments

One of the most important parts of an argumentative essay is using counter-arguments. Introduce the opposing view in a few short sentences and proceed to refute them with fact-based empirical evidence. This is a powerful way of persuading a reader to lean more towards the side of your argument.

6. Create a Solid Introduction

Remember to pay keen attention to the introductory paragraph, as it can make or break your essay. A strong thesis statement lets your reader know your stance and gives them an idea of your philosophy around the topic. A strong thesis statement will force a reader to want to read your entire essay.

7. Complex Sentences Never Impress

Fancy vocabulary and extremely long sentences are too complex to understand. Your goal is to strike the reader’s mind with intelligent arguments and not try to sound smarter than them. Use simple vocabulary but fueled with creativity.

8. Clarity and Authority

When writing an argumentative essay, do not come across as timid or uncertain. Whatever you do, don’t play both sides or you risk coming across as weak and indecisive. You should choose a side and be confident about the points you make. .

9. Stick to the Essay Length

When writing an argumentative essay, it is very easy to veer off the assigned essay length given by your instructor. Writing a 4000-word essay while the maximum essay length given by your instructor was 1500 probably isn’t a good idea.

10. Avoid Sensitive Topics

Students should avoid hot-button topics like race, sport, politics, and religion at all costs. The last thing you want to do is offend a reader who holds a strong personal opinion from you.

Get Help From An Expert Argumentative Essay Writer

If you need help with writing argumentative essays, we are here for you.  Argumentative essay writers  at  can help craft high-scoring argumentative essays. 

If you have a short deadline and a tight budget, you can trust our  online writing service  with your essay assignment. You will get 24/7 customer support. Timely delivery, free revisions, and other advantages at our  argumentative essay writing service .

Place your order now at , and get your essay done by one of our  best essay writers .

Nova A. (Literature, Marketing)

Nova Allison is a Digital Content Strategist with over eight years of experience. Nova has also worked as a technical and scientific writer. She is majorly involved in developing and reviewing online content plans that engage and resonate with audiences. Nova has a passion for writing that engages and informs her readers.

People also read

The Ultimate Guide to Argumentative Essay Writing

Best Argumentative Essay Topics Recommended by Essay Experts

Argumentative Essay Outline: How to Structure Your Argumentative Essay

The 3 Different Types of Argument

Share this article

Keep reading

argumentative essay examples

We value your privacy

We use cookies to improve your experience and give you personalized content. Do you agree to our cookie policy?

Website Data Collection

We use data collected by cookies and JavaScript libraries.

Are you sure you want to cancel?

Your preferences have not been saved.

Argumentative Essay Writing

Argumentative Essay Examples

Cathy A.

Best Argumentative Essay Examples for Your Help

Published on: Mar 10, 2023

Last updated on: May 28, 2023

argumentative essay examples

On This Page On This Page

Argumentative essays are one of the most common types of essay writing. Students are assigned to write such essays very frequently.

Despite being assigned so frequently, students still find it hard to write a good argumentative essay .

There are certain things that one needs to follow to write a good argumentative essay. The first thing is to choose an effective and interesting topic. Use all possible sources to dig out the best topic.

Afterward, the student should choose the model that they would follow to write this type of essay. Follow the steps of the chosen model and start writing the essay.

The models for writing an argumentative essay are the classical model, the Rogerian model, and the Toulmin model.

To make sure that you write a good argumentative essay, read the different types of examples mentioned in this blog.

Good Argumentative Essay Examples

Argumentative essays are an inevitable part of academic life. To write a good argumentative essay, you need to see a few good examples of this type of essay.

To analyze whether the example is good to take help from or not. You need to look for a few things in it.

Make sure it follows one specific model and has an introductory paragraph, organized body paragraphs, and a formal conclusion.

How to Start an Argumentative Essay Example

Learning how to start an argumentative essay example is a tricky thing for beginners. It is quite simple but can be challenging for newbies.   To start an argumentative essay example, you need to write a brief and attractive introduction. It is written to convince the reader and make them understand your point of view .

Add body paragraphs after the introduction to support your thesis statement. Also, use body paragraphs to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of your side of the argument.

Write a formal conclusion for your essay and summarize all the key elements of your essay. Look at the example mentioned below to understand the concept more clearly.

Check out this video for more information!

Argumentative Essay Example (PDF)

Argumentative Essay Example 

Argumentative essays are assigned to university students more often than the students of schools and colleges.

 It involves arguments over vast and sometimes bold topics as well.

For university students, usually, argumentative essay topics are not provided. They are required to search for the topic themselves and write accordingly.

The following examples will give an idea of how university students write argumentative essays.

Argumentative Essay Example for University (PDF)

Argumentative Essay Examples for College

For the college level, it is recommended to use simple language and avoid the use of complex words in essays.

Make sure that using simple language and valid evidence, you support your claim well and make it as convincing as possible

If you are a college student and want to write an argumentative essay, read the examples provided below. Focus on the formatting and the vocabulary used.

Argumentative Essay Example for College (PDF)

College Argumentative Essay Sample (PDF)

Argumentative Essay Examples for Middle School

Being a middle school student, you must be wondering how we write an argumentative essay. And how can you support your argument?

Go through the following examples and hopefully, you will be able to write an effective argumentative essay very easily.

Argumentative Essay Example for Middle School(PDF)

Middle School Argumentative Essay Sample (PDF)

Argumentative Essay Examples for High School

High school students are not very aware of all the skills that are needed to write research papers and essays. 

Especially, when it comes to argumentative essays, it becomes quite a challenge for high schools to defend their argument

In this scenario, the best option is to look into some good examples. Here we have summed up two best examples of argumentative essays for high school students specifically.

Argumentative Essay Example for High School (PDF)

High School Argumentative Essay Sample (PDF)

Argumentative Essay Examples for O Level

The course outline for O levels is quite tough. O levels students need to have a good command of the English language and amazing writing skills.

If you are an O-level student, the following examples will guide you on how to write an argumentative essay.

Argumentative Essay Example for O Level (PDF)

Argumentative Essay for O Level Students (PDF)

5-Paragraph Argumentative Essay Examples

A 5-paragraph essay is basically a formatting style for essay writing. It has the following five parts:

In the introduction, the writer introduces the topic and provides a glance at the collected data to support the main argument.

The first body paragraph discusses the first and most important point related to the argument. It starts with a topic sentence and has all the factual data to make the argument convincing.

The second body paragraph mentions the second most important element of the argument. A topic sentence is used to start these paragraphs. It gives the idea of the point that will discuss in the following paragraph.

The third paragraph discusses all the miscellaneous points. Also, it uses a transitional sentence at the end to show a relation to the conclusion.

The conclusion of a five-paragraph essay reiterates all the major elements of an argumentative essay. It also restates the thesis statement using a more convincing choice of words.

Look at the example below to see how a well-written five-paragraph essay looks like

5 Paragraph Argumentative Essay Example (PDF)

Argumentative Essay Examples for 6th Grade

Students in 6th grade are at a point where they are learning new things every day. 

Writing an argumentative essay is an interesting activity for them as they like to convince people of their point of view.

Argumentative essays written at such levels are very simple but well convincing. 

The following example will give you more detail on how a 6th-grade student should write an argumentative essay.

6th Grade Argumentative Essay Example (PDF)

Argumentative Essay Examples for 7th Grade

There is not much difference between a 6th-grade and a 7th-grade student. Both of them are enhancing their writing and academic skills.

Here is another example to help you with writing an effective argumentative essay.

7th Grade Argumentative Essay Example (PDF)

Tough Essay Due? Hire a Writer!

Tough Essay Due? Hire a Writer!

Short Argumentative Essay Examples

For an argumentative essay, there is no specific limit for the word count. It only has to convince the readers and pass on the knowledge of the writer to the intended audience.

It can be short or detailed. It would be considered valid as far as it has an argument involved in it.

Following is an example of a short argumentative essay example

Short Argumentative Essay Example (PDF)

Immigration Argumentative Essay Examples

Immigration is a hot topic for a very long time now. People have different opinions regarding this issue.

Where there is more than one opinion, an argumentative essay can be written on that topic. The following are examples of argumentative essays on immigration.

Read them and try to understand how an effective argumentative essay is written on such a topic.

Argumentative Essay Example on Immigration (PDF)

Argumentative Essay Sample on Immigration (PDF)

Writing essays is usually a tiring and time-consuming assignment to do. Students already have a bunch of assignments for other subjects to complete. In this situation, asking for help from professional writers is the best choice.

If you are still in need of assistance, our argumentative essay writer can help you create a compelling essay that presents your argument clearly and effectively. 

With our argumentative essay writing service, you will enjoy perks like expert guidance, unlimited revisions, and helpful customer support. Let our essay writer help you make an impact with your essay on global warming today! 

Place your order with our essay writing service today!

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the 7 types of arguments.

The seven types of arguments are as follows:

What is the structure of an argument?

The structure of an argument consists of a main point (thesis statement) that is supported by evidence. 

This evidence can include facts, statistics, examples, and other forms of data that help to prove or disprove the thesis statement. 

After providing the evidence, arguments also often include a conclusion that summarizes the main points made throughout the argument.

Cathy A. (Literature, Marketing)

For more than five years now, Cathy has been one of our most hardworking authors on the platform. With a Masters degree in mass communication, she knows the ins and outs of professional writing. Clients often leave her glowing reviews for being an amazing writer who takes her work very seriously.

People also read

Argumentative Essay - A Complete Writing Guide

Learn How to Write an Argumentative Essay Outline

Basic Types of Argument and How to Use Them?

Take Your Pick – 200+ Argumentative Essay Topics

Essential Tips and Examples for Writing an Engaging Argumentative Essay about Abortion

Crafting a Winning Argumentative Essay on Social Media

Craft a Winning Argumentative Essay about Mental Health

Strategies for Writing a Winning Argumentative Essay about Technology

Crafting an Unbeatable Argumentative Essay About Gun Control

Win the Debate - Writing An Effective Argumentative Essay About Sports

Make Your Case: A Guide to Writing an Argumentative Essay on Climate Change

Ready, Set, Argue: Craft a Convincing Argumentative Essay About Wearing Mask

Crafting a Powerful Argumentative Essay about Global Warming: A Step-by-Step Guide

Share this article

Keep reading

argumentative essay examples

Join our mailing list for discount & offers


Disclaimer: Our website content is sometimes created using AI but is reviewed and verified by our experienced team of editors. All client orders are completed by our team of highly qualified human writers. The essays and papers provided by us are not to be used for submission but rather as learning models only.

argumentative sentence sample

Subscribed successfully!


Email Address Already Exists!

Please Enter Valid Email!


Definition of argumentative

Example Sentences

These examples are programmatically compiled from various online sources to illustrate current usage of the word 'argumentative.' Any opinions expressed in the examples do not represent those of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback about these examples.

Word History

15th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1

Articles Related to argumentative


9 Words with Unnecessary Syllables

'Argumentative', 'interpretate', and more

Dictionary Entries Near argumentative



Cite this Entry

“Argumentative.” Dictionary , Merriam-Webster, Accessed 1 Jun. 2023.

Kids Definition

Kids definition of argumentative, more from merriam-webster on argumentative.

Nglish: Translation of argumentative for Spanish Speakers

Britannica English: Translation of argumentative for Arabic Speakers

Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free!

Play Quordle Game

Can you solve 4 words at once?

Word of the day.

See Definitions and Examples »

Get Word of the Day daily email!


You've used more than you might think

words for things you didnt know have names vol 2 approach

When 'thingamajig' and 'thingamabob' just won't do

merriam webster time traveler

Look up any year to find out

semantic bleaching text on white background

How 'literally' can mean 'figuratively'


A simple way to keep them apart. (Most of the time.)


And who put it there, anyway?

illustrated notebook that says everyday vs every day

A simple trick to keep them separate


A quiz that’s all bark, no bite.

Take the quiz

collage with pinking shears decanter bustle sculling on a purple background

Test your visual vocabulary!

Name That Thing

You know what it looks like… but what is it cal...

winning words from the national spelling bee logo

Can you outdo past winners of the National Spelli...

Cambridge Dictionary

Examples of argument


Word of the Day

Your browser doesn't support HTML5 audio

lasting or living for a long time

On its last legs (Describing the condition of objects, Part 1)

On its last legs (Describing the condition of objects, Part 1)


Learn more with +Plus


There was a problem sending your report.

Argumentative Essay Examples (3 College Samples to Use)

When writing an argumentative essay, it can be helpful to look at examples and samples that provide the structure of the outline for the essay form. Here are argumentative essay examples to use when writing your university-level essay.

What is an argumentative essay?

An argumentative essay backs up its claims with facts and evidence. Its ultimate goal is to persuade the reader to concur with the thesis. Instead of only the author’s thoughts and feelings, a strong argumentative essay will incorporate facts and evidence to back up its claims.

This article will find three different argumentative essay examples to help you understand how to frame a good argument.

Argumentative essay outline:

Argumentative essays typically follow the conventional five-paragraph pattern. However, this is not necessary. The two common frameworks for these articles are the Toulmin model and the Rogerian model.

Argumentative essay examples

Below are three examples of argumentative essays.

Essay Example 1:

Some people have proposed closing public libraries and replacing them with iPads with e-reader subscriptions as online learning becomes more widespread and more resources are transformed into digital form.

The idea’s proponents claim that it will result in financial savings for nearby cities and villages because libraries are expensive. They think more people will read since they won’t have to go to the library to borrow a book. Instead, they can just click on the book they want to read and read it from wherever they are. Additionally, since libraries won’t need to purchase physical copies of books because they can simply rent as many digital ones, they’ll have access to more resources.

But using tablets to replace libraries would be a grave error. First, compared to print resources, digital books and resources are more problematic and are connected with less learning. According to research comparing tablet and book reading, tablet users read 20–30% slower, remember 20–20% less information, and comprehend 10–15% less of what they read than those who read the same material in print. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that gazing at a computer for an extended period is significantly more likely than reading print to result in several health issues. Such as blurred vision, faintness, dry eyes, headaches, and eye strain.

A higher incidence of more significant health conditions like fibromyalgia, shoulder and back discomfort, and carpal tunnel syndrome. And muscle strain is also observed in individuals who use tablets and mobile devices extensively.

Second, assuming that libraries provide book lending is limited-minded. There are many advantages to libraries, many of which can only be accessed if the library is physically there. These advantages include serving as a peaceful study area, offering a forum for neighborhood interaction, hosting classes on various subjects, creating employment opportunities, responding to client inquiries, and maintaining a sense of community. Over a third of residents in one neighborhood said they felt more connected to their community when a local library started hosting community events like play dates for young children and their parents .

Similarly, a 2015 Pew survey revealed that nearly two-thirds of American respondents believed eliminating their neighborhood library would significantly negatively impact their neighborhood.

Tablets can’t provide these advantages nearly as well as libraries do for those looking to connect with others and find answers to their queries.

Despite the numerous problems with digital screens, replacing libraries with tablets may seem straightforward, but it would inspire people to spend even more time staring at screens. Additionally, many of the advantages of libraries on which people have come to rely would no longer be accessible. A simple object in many communities could never replace libraries since they are such a vital element of the social fabric.

Essay Example 2:

Malaria is a contagious illness brought on by parasites that are spread to humans by female Anopheles mosquitoes. Over 500 million people contract malaria each year, with about 80% of those individuals residing in Sub-Saharan Africa. Every year, malaria claims the lives of close to 500,000 people, the majority of them being young children under the age of five. Malaria has a higher death rate than many other infectious disorders.

Rather than treating the illness once the person is already infected, even though there have been numerous programs created to increase access to malaria treatment.

Numerous medications are available to treat malaria; many are effective and life-saving. Nonetheless, malaria eradication projects in Sub-Saharan Africa that place an excessive emphasis on treatment and insufficient emphasis on prevention have not been successful over the long run . The WHO’s Global Malaria Eradication Programme was a significant initiative to eradicate malaria. It was founded in 1955 to eradicate malaria in Africa during the following ten years . The program largely focused on vector control and was based on earlier successful initiatives in Brazil and the US. Chloroquine was widely dispersed, while DDT was sprayed in massive quantities.

The effort to eradicate malaria cost more than one billion dollars. However, the initiative was plagued by numerous issues, and in 1969, WHO had to acknowledge that the program had failed to eradicate malaria. During the period the initiative was in place, the number of malaria cases and malaria-related deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa had increased by more than 10%.

The project’s failure was largely due to the consistent strategies and procedures it imposed. The program was not nearly as effective as it could have been since it did not consider differences in governments, geography, and infrastructure. Sub-Saharan Africa lacks the resources and infrastructure necessary to sustain such a complex program, making it impossible to carry out in an intended manner.

Most African nations lack the funds to adequately treat and immunize all of their citizens, let alone afford to clean marshes or other malaria-prone areas. Only 25% of what Brazil spent on malaria eradication was spent per person on the continent. Africa’s Sub-Saharan region cannot rely on a strategy that calls for increased funding, infrastructure, or further expertise.

The widespread use of chloroquine has also led to developing parasites that are now a problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. Because chloroquine was used frequently but ineffectively, mosquitoes became resistant, and as a result, over 95% of mosquitoes in Sub-Saharan Africa are now resistant to it. To prevent and treat malaria, newer, more expensive treatments must be utilized, which raises the price of malaria treatment for a region that can’t afford it.

Programs should concentrate on preventing infection from arising in the first place rather than creating plans to treat malaria after the infection has already occurred. This strategy is more affordable and effective and also decreases the number of days lost to missed work or school, which can further impair the region’s output.

Insecticide-treated bed nets are one of the easiest and most cost-efficient ways to prevent malaria (ITNs). These nets offer a secure perimeter around whoever is utilizing them. Bed nets treated with insecticides are far more useful than those that haven’t since they prevent mosquitoes from biting people through the netting. And help lower mosquito populations in a neighborhood, aiding those who don’t even possess bed nets. Because most mosquito bites occur when a person is asleep, bed nets can significantly lessen the number of transmissions at night. Where ITNs are widely used, malaria transmission can be decreased by as much as 90%.

Households suffering from malaria can usually only gather 40% of the yields that healthy families can. A household with malaria sufferers also spends about a fifth of its income on medical expenses, not accounting for the time lost from work due to the sickness. According to estimates, malaria causes Africa to lose 12 billion USD in revenue annually. Sub-Saharan Africa needs a strong economy made possible by a large working population.

Essay Example 3:

People are once again debating whether college athletes should be paid due to the continued popularity of college athletics and the significant financial success of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA).

There are numerous possible payment structures. Student-athletes might receive compensation through sponsorships, autographs, and the right to use their likeness, just like professional Olympians do. These payments could take a free-market approach in which players can earn whatever the market offers.

The idea’s proponents contend that college athletes need to be paid in some way for their labor since they are the ones who practice, compete in games, along with drawing spectators. Without college athletes, the NCAA wouldn’t exist, coaches wouldn’t be paid their (sometimes very high) salaries, and companies like Nike wouldn’t be able to make money off college sports. College athletes don’t receive any of the $1 billion in annual revenue that the NCAA generates in the form of a paycheck.

People who support paying college athletes assert that doing so will encourage them to stay in school longer and delay turning pro.

The Duke basketball sensation Zion Williamson, who suffered a catastrophic knee injury during his freshman year, is cited by the idea’s proponents as evidence. Many others claimed that even he adored representing Duke, risking another injury and prematurely terminating his professional career for an organization that wasn’t paying him wasn’t worth it. Later that year, Williamson declared his eligibility for the NCAA draught, showing that he agreed with them. He might have remained at Duke for more time had he been paid.

Paying athletes might also end the NCAA’s ongoing recruitment issues. Because it was determined that coaches were utilizing sex workers to attract recruits to join the team, which was completely wrong. The NCAA stripped the University of Louisville men’s basketball team of its national championship trophy in 2018. Numerous additional recruiting scandals have occurred, in which college athletes and recruiters were bought off with anything from free automobiles to having their grades modified to outright bribery.

The NCAA might end the dishonest and unlawful methods certain schools and coaches use to recruit athletes by paying college athletes and disclosing their earnings.

Even though both sides have valid arguments, it is evident that the drawbacks of compensating collegiate athletes exceed their advantages. College athletes dedicate much time and effort to representing their institution but are rewarded with scholarships and benefits. This can result in a bidding war only for the top athletes.

In contrast, most student athletics and college athletic programs would suffer or shut down due to a lack of funding. It is possible for many people if benefits for student-athletes are maintained at the current level.

A successful argumentative essay incorporates the author’s thoughts and opinions and uses facts and evidence to support its claims. For instance, you might have wished to write an argumentative essay arguing that your friends would like to travel to New York.

The majority of individuals concur that eating fast food is unhealthy. It is arguable whether the federal government should regulate the size of sodas sold at fast-food restaurants because junk food is detrimental to your health. The statement is open to reasonable agreement or disagreement.

Start with a sentence that will grab your attention. Describe the texts in detail. Declare your position. Verify that you have rephrased the prompt. Add a topic sentence that restates your assertion and justification.

Inside this article

Fact checked: Content is rigorously reviewed by a team of qualified and experienced fact checkers. Fact checkers review articles for factual accuracy, relevance, and timeliness. Learn more.

About the author

Dalia Y.: Dalia is an English Major and linguistics expert with an additional degree in Psychology. Dalia has featured articles on Forbes, Inc, Fast Company, Grammarly, and many more. She covers English, ESL, and all things grammar on GrammarBrain.

Core lessons

Popular lessons

Stay awhile. your weekly dose of grammar and english fun..

The world's best online resource for learning English. Understand words, phrases, slang terms, and all other variations of the English language.

Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

Developing Strong Thesis Statements

OWL logo

Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

These OWL resources will help you develop and refine the arguments in your writing.

The thesis statement or main claim must be debatable

An argumentative or persuasive piece of writing must begin with a debatable thesis or claim. In other words, the thesis must be something that people could reasonably have differing opinions on. If your thesis is something that is generally agreed upon or accepted as fact then there is no reason to try to persuade people.

Example of a non-debatable thesis statement:

This thesis statement is not debatable. First, the word pollution implies that something is bad or negative in some way. Furthermore, all studies agree that pollution is a problem; they simply disagree on the impact it will have or the scope of the problem. No one could reasonably argue that pollution is unambiguously good.

Example of a debatable thesis statement:

This is an example of a debatable thesis because reasonable people could disagree with it. Some people might think that this is how we should spend the nation's money. Others might feel that we should be spending more money on education. Still others could argue that corporations, not the government, should be paying to limit pollution.

Another example of a debatable thesis statement:

In this example there is also room for disagreement between rational individuals. Some citizens might think focusing on recycling programs rather than private automobiles is the most effective strategy.

The thesis needs to be narrow

Although the scope of your paper might seem overwhelming at the start, generally the narrower the thesis the more effective your argument will be. Your thesis or claim must be supported by evidence. The broader your claim is, the more evidence you will need to convince readers that your position is right.

Example of a thesis that is too broad:

There are several reasons this statement is too broad to argue. First, what is included in the category "drugs"? Is the author talking about illegal drug use, recreational drug use (which might include alcohol and cigarettes), or all uses of medication in general? Second, in what ways are drugs detrimental? Is drug use causing deaths (and is the author equating deaths from overdoses and deaths from drug related violence)? Is drug use changing the moral climate or causing the economy to decline? Finally, what does the author mean by "society"? Is the author referring only to America or to the global population? Does the author make any distinction between the effects on children and adults? There are just too many questions that the claim leaves open. The author could not cover all of the topics listed above, yet the generality of the claim leaves all of these possibilities open to debate.

Example of a narrow or focused thesis:

In this example the topic of drugs has been narrowed down to illegal drugs and the detriment has been narrowed down to gang violence. This is a much more manageable topic.

We could narrow each debatable thesis from the previous examples in the following way:

Narrowed debatable thesis 1:

This thesis narrows the scope of the argument by specifying not just the amount of money used but also how the money could actually help to control pollution.

Narrowed debatable thesis 2:

This thesis narrows the scope of the argument by specifying not just what the focus of a national anti-pollution campaign should be but also why this is the appropriate focus.

Qualifiers such as " typically ," " generally ," " usually ," or " on average " also help to limit the scope of your claim by allowing for the almost inevitable exception to the rule.

Types of claims

Claims typically fall into one of four categories. Thinking about how you want to approach your topic, or, in other words, what type of claim you want to make, is one way to focus your thesis on one particular aspect of your broader topic.

Claims of fact or definition: These claims argue about what the definition of something is or whether something is a settled fact. Example:

Claims of cause and effect: These claims argue that one person, thing, or event caused another thing or event to occur. Example:

Claims about value: These are claims made of what something is worth, whether we value it or not, how we would rate or categorize something. Example:

Claims about solutions or policies: These are claims that argue for or against a certain solution or policy approach to a problem. Example:

Which type of claim is right for your argument? Which type of thesis or claim you use for your argument will depend on your position and knowledge of the topic, your audience, and the context of your paper. You might want to think about where you imagine your audience to be on this topic and pinpoint where you think the biggest difference in viewpoints might be. Even if you start with one type of claim you probably will be using several within the paper. Regardless of the type of claim you choose to utilize it is key to identify the controversy or debate you are addressing and to define your position early on in the paper.

Sentence Stack - Search Example Sentences


Show Context

Popular Phrases

Sentence Icon

Hey, you should join our mailing list!

argumentative sentence sample

© 2022 Sentence Stack | Terms | Privacy Cookies -->

Go to the homepage

Examples of 'argumentative' in a sentence

Examples from collins dictionaries, examples from the collins corpus.

Quick word challenge

Quiz Review

Score: 0 / 5

argumentative sentence sample

All ENGLISH words that begin with 'A'

Thank you for your interest in our company.

Unfortunately, we are not hiring writers now due to low season.

We will be glad to review your application in the future.

argumentative sentence sample

How to Write a Thesis Statement: Examples and Tips to Polish Writing

28 May 2023

Quick Navigation

👩‍🏫 Significance of a Thesis Statement in Academic Writing

🧩Components of a Strong Thesis Statement

📃 Manual on Writing Thesis Statement

💭 Determine a Strong Thesis Statement from a Weak One

🔔 Common Pitfalls in Thesis Statement Writing

⚡ Tips to Polish the Thesis Statement

However, it can be daunting for many students, making it a major hurdle in their academic journey. Thankfully, there are PapersOwl writers who can help you with essays with efficient and catchy thesis statements. This article provides definitive guidance on creating a thesis statement that captures your intended message and effectively engages your readers.

During the reading of the article:

We'll walk you through the steps of crafting a thesis statement through top experts that stand out and show you examples of good and bad thesis statements.

You will be equipped with the necessary skills to write compelling thesis statements in all academic writing endeavors.

Significance of a Thesis Statement in Academic Writing

What is a thesis statement? A thesis statement serves as the backbone of any academic writing piece. It not only guides the reader through the central idea but also conveys the paper's main argument. It provides a clear picture of what to expect in the rest of the paper.

Thesis statements often appear at the beginning of a paper, especially in the introduction, indicating the writer's stance on the topic, highlighting the scope of the paper, and suggesting how the paper will explore the key points that support the central argument.

A well-crafted thesis statement grabs the reader's attention and piques their interest in the topic, encouraging them to read. Organizing the paper and ensuring all arguments align with the central idea is crucial.

Without a convincing thesis statement, the paper's arguments could lack coherence, and readers are likelier to lose interest. Therefore, a thesis statement is significant and essential in academic writing. Especially if you are paying for an essay , you should first check whether it contains an effective thesis statement.

Components of a Strong Thesis Statement

What are the elements that set strong thesis statements apart from weak ones? Following, we'll explore the three key components that make up strong thesis statements:

Clear and Concise Expression of the Main Argument

The first component of strong thesis statements is clearly and concisely expressing the main argument. Your thesis statement should give readers a brief overview of what they can expect in your paper or essay.

You need to summarize your argument in a single sentence to achieve this. The clarity of your argument will draw your reader's attention and make them want to dive into your writing.

Specificity and Focus on a Single Idea

The second component of a strong thesis statement is specificity and focus on a single idea. A powerful thesis statement provides direction and focus for your writing. Therefore, it should be specific and focused on a single idea.

It would be best to avoid ambiguity in your thesis statements, and it should not be too broad. When developing your thesis statement, ask yourself what you want to argue, and then convey this in a specific statement.

Debatable Nature and Ability to Generate Discussion

The third component of strong thesis statements is the ability to generate discussion and debate around the main argument. A strong thesis statement not only states the writer's position but also invites discussion and encourages the reader to debate.

When developing your thesis statements, it's essential to ensure that it identifies a clear position and can be challenged by opposing perspectives. A debatable thesis statement is more likely to generate discussion and debate around the main issue, making your writing more engaging for your audience.

Manual on Writing Thesis Statement

This manual guides you through crafting effective thesis statements that impress your professors. So, let’s start!

Step 1: Start with a Question

The first step in writing the thesis statement is, to begin with a question. It can be a guiding or research question related to your paper topic. For instance, if you’re writing an essay on the effects of climate change on the economy, your question could be, “How does climate change impact the global economy?” This question will help you focus on your paper's key aspects.

Step 2: Write Your Initial Answer

After formulating your question, the next step is to write down your initial answer. It should be a concise statement that addresses your question. For example, “Climate change directly impacts the global economy.” This statement doesn’t have to be perfect or comprehensive at this stage; it just sets the foundation for a more thorough development.

Step 3: Develop Your Answer

In this step, you must explain your answer more thoroughly. It would help if you considered providing supporting evidence, examples, and logical reasoning. For example, “The increased frequency of natural disasters caused by climate change affects the infrastructure and productivity of various nations, leading to major economic losses and increased resource consumption.”

Step 4: Refine Your Thesis Statement

Once you have developed your answer, you must refine it into a strong thesis statement. Your thesis statement should be an assertive sentence that summarizes your main idea. It should be specific, relevant, and debatable. For instance, “The escalating impacts of global warming on the world economy can only be mitigated by collaborative policies that unite various stakeholders in a global effort to reduce carbon emissions.”

Determine a Strong Thesis Statement from a Weak One

A strong thesis statement is essential to any successful essay or paper and should convey the writer's main point or argument. A weak thesis statement, on the other hand, is vague, overly broad, or too specific, and it can leave readers confused or disinterested.

To determine whether a thesis statement is strong or weak, it's essential to consider whether it meets specific criteria, such as specificity, clarity, and relevance to the topic at hand. By crafting a strong thesis statement, writers can ensure that their work will be well-received and effectively communicate their ideas to their readers.

Argumentative Thesis Statement

The argumentative thesis statements are the statements that present the writer's stance on a particular topic and outline the supporting arguments. The purpose of this type of statement is to convince the reader of the validity of the writer's argument. For example, if the topic is "Should high school students be required to wear uniforms?"

The statement would be, "High school students should not be required to wear uniforms because it restricts their freedom of expression, does not necessarily improve academic performance, and can be a financial burden on students and their families."

This thesis statement summarizes the writer's stance and outlines the supporting arguments. When writing an argumentative thesis statement, it is vital to be clear, concise, and persuasive to impact the reader strongly.

Expository Essay Thesis Statement

An expository thesis statement is crucial to any expository essay, as it is the guiding principle for the entire paper. This statement should clearly and concisely communicate the main point or argument of the essay to the reader.

For example, a thesis statement for an expository essay on global warming might read, "Despite differing opinions, scientific evidence overwhelmingly supports the fact that human activity is contributing to the rise in global temperatures."

By laying out the essay's main argument in this way, a clear and concise good thesis statement summarizes helps the reader understand the purpose and direction of the piece.

Analytical Thesis Statement

The well-crafted analytical thesis statements positively impact the quality of the paper as a whole. For instance, let's say your thesis statement addresses the theme of inequality in "To Kill a Mockingbird" by Harper Lee. The statement could be: "In 'To Kill a Mockingbird,' Harper Lee portrays the inequalities in society through the character of Tom Robinson, highlighting the power dynamics between white and people of color in the justice system." Such a statement captures the reader's attention and urges them to read on to learn more.

Narrative Thesis Statement

Unlike traditional academic essays, narrative essays are often told from a first-person perspective and rely heavily on anecdotes and personal experiences to make a point. For example, a good narrative thesis statement might read, "My experience hiking the Pacific Crest Trail taught me the importance of perseverance in the face of adversity."

From there, the essay or story could delve into the challenges faced on the voyage and how they were overcome, making for a compelling and engaging narrative. Ultimately, a narrative thesis statement offers readers a glimpse into the writer's mind and heart, allowing them to see the world differently.

Cause and Effect Thesis Statement

The primary purpose of the cause-and-effect thesis statement is to illustrate how an action or event leads to a particular result. For instance, the thesis statement, "The use of social media affects students' academic performance negatively,'' implies a causative relationship between social media use and the student's grades.

The statement highlights the cause-and-effect relationship and provides a direction for further research. Another example of a cause-and-effect thesis statement is, "Environmental pollution leads to a decline in public health,'' which shows the negative impact of pollution on human health.

Understanding the cause-and-effect relationship can help individuals, policymakers, and businesses make informed decisions and mitigate negative consequences.

Philosophy Thesis Statement

A well-written philosophy thesis statement could argue the importance of human rights, the existence of objective morality, or the role of consciousness in decision-making. One excellent example of a  rhetorical thesis statement  could be the idea that knowledge is gained through experience.

This statement may seem simplistic initially, but it has significant implications for fields like education, psychology, and epistemology. By crafting a solid thesis statement, philosophers can communicate their ideas clearly and impact fully, making a lasting contribution to philosophy.

Common Pitfalls in Thesis Statement Writing

Writing a good thesis statement can be daunting, leaving many students desperate for guidance like thesis statement builders . But even with careful consideration, it's easy to fall into common pitfalls that can hinder the statement's effectiveness.

One such trap is being too broad or vague in your wording. This can leave readers needing clarification on the focus of your argument.

Another mistake to avoid is using language that is too complicated. While it may seem impressive to include complex phrasing, it can need to be clarified for the clarity of your message.

A third mistake is making a too-specific statement that doesn't leave room for flexibility in your argument.

This common pitfall can be avoided with careful planning, research, and editing to create a strong and good thesis statement that accurately communicates your perspective.

Tips to Polish the Thesis Statement

Following are some tips to polish the thesis statement:

Ensure that the Thesis Statement Aligns with the Overall Argument

As you begin to develop your thesis statement, it is important to make sure that it aligns with the overall argument that you are presenting. This means that your thesis statement should be concise, focused, and reflective of the main point you are trying to make.

Checking for Clarity, Precision, and Specificity

Another essential aspect of polishing your thesis statement is ensuring it is clear, precise, and specific. Clarity refers to your ability to communicate your ideas in an easy-to-understand manner. Precision requires precise vocabulary and avoiding overly general statements. Specificity requires the statement to be sharply defined and focused on a particular issue.

Best Way of Integrating the Thesis Statement in the Introduction

Your introduction is critical for motivating the reader to continue reading. Therefore, it should have a well-thought structure. The most common introduction structure is a hook, followed by background information, a bridge, a thesis statement placement, and a preview of the main points. Normally, your thesis statement should be placed at the end of the introduction as a clear assertion of what you will explore throughout the rest of your paper.

Ensure that the Thesis Statement Guides the Structure and Content of the Paper

It is vital to remember that your thesis statement should be the guiding factor of your paper, informing your structure and the content that goes into it. As such, be sure to revisit and revise your thesis statement to ensure it accurately reflects the main argument and can guide the structure of the paper.

Revising and Iterating

Finally, after you have developed your thesis statement, it is essential to continue revisiting and iterating on it as your paper evolves throughout the writing process. This means constantly evaluating whether the message remains relevant, meaningful, and effective as the paper progresses. Iterative improvements to the thesis statement can always benefit the paper and ensure its core argument remains strong.

Final Thought

All in all, writing a final thesis statement is an essential component when composing any written work. Adequately expressing your concept, opinion, or argument in one concise sentence gives power and clarity to your essay. Depending on the type you are writing, it can help your readers focus on what your topic entails explicitly.

For instance, a well-written thesis statement for a persuasive essay will begin by introducing a point and then include evidence-based assertions that will support that point. To recapitulate, when crafting your thesis statement, think of it as drawing a roadmap for both yourself and the reader: it is the anchor point of the paragraph and the entire paper.

With solid groups of research and contemplation about what kind of stance you want to take on your topic, you are sure to write an effective thesis statement.

Was this article helpful?

Thanks for your feedback.

Article author picture

Prof. Trinity

I’ve always been a hard-working person (got zero Cs since my primary school:)). Although, it doesn’t mean I’m a super nerd or something. You know, I just manage my time successfully. I never skip typos and don’t accept plagiarism, because I realize how important it is for students.

Readers also enjoyed

Actual pop culture essay topics for students.

Essay Writing Guides 14 likes

Process Analysis Essay Topics for Students

Leading tips on how to start an essay with a quote correctly.

Essay Writing Guides 45 likes


Simply fill out the form, click the button, and have no worries!

argumentative sentence sample

Oath Keepers founder gets 18 years in prison, longest Jan. 6 sentence yet

WASHINGTON, May 25 (Reuters) - The founder of the far-right militant Oath Keepers Stewart Rhodes was sentenced to 18 years in prison on Thursday for seditious conspiracy, the longest sentence imposed to date over the Jan. 6 U.S. Capitol riot that sought to keep Donald Trump in the White House.

U.S. District Judge Amit Mehta delivered the sentence after a defiant Rhodes stood before him in an orange jumpsuit and claimed he was a "political prisoner" who, like Trump, was trying to oppose people "who are destroying our country."

“For decades, Mr. Rhodes, it is clear you have wanted the democracy of this country to devolve into violence," Mehta told him.

"I dare say, Mr. Rhodes, and I've never said this about anyone who I've sentenced: You, sir, present an ongoing threat and peril to this country, to the republic and the very fabric of our democracy."

Rhodes, a former Army paratrooper turned Yale-educated lawyer, was convicted in November by a federal court jury in Washington.

Rhodes' prison term represents the longest sentence for any of the 1,000-plus people charged in connection with the Jan. 6, 2021, Capitol attack by supporters of Republican then-President Trump in a failed bid to block Congress from certifying Democratic rival Joe Biden's November 2020 election victory.

Until now, the longest sentence was 14 years in prison given to a Pennsylvania man who attacked police during the rampage.

Prosecutors had sought a sentence of 25 years for Rhodes.

"Mr. Rhodes led a conspiracy to use force and violence to intimidate and coerce members of our government into stopping the lawful transfer of power following a presidential election,” federal prosecutor Kathryn Rakoczy said. “As the court has just found - that is terrorism.”

Rhodes expressed no remorse and instead accused the far left of destroying America.

“I believe this country is incredibly divided. And this prosecution - not just of me, but of all J6ers – is making it even worse. I consider every J6er a political prisoner and all of them are being grossly overcharged," he said.

Stewart Rhodes of the Oath Keepers uses a radio as he departs a Trump rally in Minneapolis

[1/2] Oath Keepers militia founder Stewart Rhodes uses a radio as he departs with volunteers from a rally held by U.S. President Donald Trump in Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S. October 10, 2019. Picture taken October 10, 2019. REUTERS/Jim Urquhart

He also vowed “to expose the criminality of this regime” from his prison cell.

In addition to seditious conspiracy - a felony charge involving attempting "to overthrow, put down or to destroy by force the government of the United States" - Rhodes was convicted of obstructing an official proceeding and tampering with documents. Rhodes was acquitted of two other charges.

Rhodes, who wears an eye patch after accidentally shooting himself in the face with his own gun, founded the Oath Keepers in 2009.

The militant group's members include current and retired U.S. military personnel, law enforcement officers and first responders. They have appeared, often heavily armed, at protests and political events including racial justice demonstrations that followed the 2020 murder in Minneapolis of a Black man named George Floyd by a white police officer.

Mehta also on Thursday sentenced co-defendant Kelly Meggs, a former Florida Chapter leader also convicted of seditious conspiracy, to 12 years in prison.

Prosecutors asked Mehta to sentence Meggs, the group's former Florida chapter leader, to 21 years in prison, although Meggs' family members urged the judge to look at the defendant's good qualities as a protector and provider in his role as a father, brother and husband.

Meggs' wife Connie was also separately convicted in a different trial with other associates of the Oath Keepers for their roles in the Capitol attack.

“I truly apologize for being here,” Kelly Meggs said through tears. “It has not only destroyed my life, but the life of my entire family.”

Meggs admitted that he should have never entered the Capitol grounds, but he nevertheless denied that he planned his actions in advance, and he blamed his "vile and hateful language" for leading to his conviction.

Meggs, who in addition to seditious conspiracy was also convicted of four other felonies including obstructing an official proceeding, led a group of Oath Keepers clad in paramilitary gear into the Capitol on Jan. 6.

Others, meanwhile, staged a "quick reaction force" at a hotel in nearby Arlington, Va., that prosecutors said was equipped with firearms that could be quickly transported into Washington.

Although attorneys for Rhodes vowed to appeal the conviction, they told reporters outside the courthouse that they were pleasantly surprised that Mehta did not impose a stricter sentence.

Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.

argumentative sentence sample

Thomson Reuters

Sarah N. Lynch is the lead reporter for Reuters covering the U.S. Justice Department out of Washington, D.C. During her time on the beat, she has covered everything from the Mueller report and the use of federal agents to quell protesters in the wake of George Floyd’s murder, to the rampant spread of COVID-19 in prisons and the department's prosecutions following the Jan. 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol.

Read Next / Editor's Picks

GlidePath's Byrd Ranch energy storage facility in Sweeny, Texas

More from Reuters

Industry insight.

argumentative sentence sample

Gayatri Joshi

argumentative sentence sample

Elizabeth Duffy

argumentative sentence sample

Zach Warren

argumentative sentence sample

Blake Brittain

University lecturer Adam Brown jailed for 24 years for stabbing murder of wife Chen Cheng

Chen Cheng looks at the camera for a selfie.

A university lecturer who stabbed his wife to death in their Melbourne home after an argument over their child's kindergarten has been jailed for 24 years.

Key points:

Adam Brown, 41, will spend at least 17 years in prison for murdering Chen Cheng in April 2022, a crime described by the sentencing judge as "morally abhorrent" and "reprehensible".

Brown stabbed Ms Chen, 35, multiple times in their Croydon North home during an altercation that left their home and garden smeared with blood.

Supreme Court Justice John Champion said evidence suggested Brown, a lecturer in media and gender studies at Deakin University, was suffering from adjustment disorder and depression at the time, which contributed "directly and powerfully" to his murderous actions.

Psychiatric evaluations found Brown was deeply traumatised, bereaved, confused and overwhelmed by the circumstances surrounding his wife's murder, Justice Champion said.

However, Justice Champion said Brown could have put the knife down at any time and de-escalated the situation.

Adam Brown, in a suit, and Chen Cheng, in a red dress, hold drinks at a wedding reception

"It is clear you had an opportunity to stop, put the knife down and walk away from the argument. Instead you engaged in what you knew to be morally abhorrent behaviour," Justice Champion said.

"Ms Cheng fought for her life against your attack on her and doubtless she was terrified by what was occurring. There is no excuse for what you did.

"You must be justly punished for your offence. Your actions have deprived your wife's family of a beloved daughter, niece and cousin ... you have permanently impacted the lives of so many people, not least your own child.

"Adjustment disorders are an enormously common phenomenon and not everyone who has one goes on to stab another person to death.

"In my opinion this impairment did not lead you to commit this act. I accept it would likely not have occurred, but this is a quite distinct proposition that this somehow caused or explains such reprehensible violence.

"It does not."

Mother spoke to 'beautiful daughter' the night of her death

Justice Champion read from a victim impact statement by Ms Cheng's mother, Liu Min, which described her daughter's death as "like a spear piercing her heart".

"She is afraid of going out and seeing relatives and friends, she couldn't believe her beautiful daughter was murdered in what should have been the safest place: her home," Justice Champion said.

Adam Brown, a man wearing glasses, smirks for a selfie.

The couple had endured a tumultuous period, including the traumatic birth of their child, Ms Cheng suffering from mental illness, Brown's insecure employment, the death of his brother and resulting frequent arguments between the two of them.

While visiting from China, Ms Cheng's mother, Ms Min, witnessed the arguments and came to believe her daughter was in an unhappy marriage. As a result, she stayed in daily contact with her daughter after she returned to China.

Mother and daughter spoke on the evening of Ms Cheng's murder, but, Justice Champion said, nothing seemed out of the ordinary during this conversation.

Some time later in the evening, Ms Cheng and Brown began to argue about their two-year-old son's kindergarten arrangements. Brown claimed that Ms Cheng spat in his face, hit him around the ears and then attacked him with a knife.

He claimed he defended himself during the fight, which began upstairs at their home, before spilling downstairs into the kitchen, then out into the back garden.

Neighbours heard Ms Cheng screaming and congregated outside the couple's house, before Brown eventually let them in through the garage door, telling them that Ms Cheng had attacked him and that they had stabbed each other.

The neighbours found Ms Cheng's body in the back garden and unsuccessfully performed CPR on her.

A group of people looking downcast crosses the road with a bus in the background

However, Justice Champion noted Ms Cheng's comparatively small size, the defensive knife wounds on her hands and Brown's comparatively light injuries, and questioned Brown's description of a struggle over a knife. 

"I accept an argument took place, but do not conclude Ms Cheng initially attacked you," Justice Champion said.

"You were therefore not defending yourself, nor do I conclude you were fearing for your life. Ms Cheng fought for her life."

Justice Champion noted Brown's early plea of guilty, unlikelihood of re-offending, previous good character, no prior convictions and the ongoing impact on his mental health, which will potentially make his term of imprisonment more onerous.

Both the prosecution and defence submitted that the murder was in the mid-range of offending, and Justice Champion said that if Brown had not pleaded guilty, the maximum sentence would have been 29 years.


Supported by

news analysis

Sedition Sentence for Oath Keepers Leader Marks Moment of Accountability

The 18 years in prison given to Stewart Rhodes for a rarely charged crime underscored the lengths to which the Justice Department and the courts have gone in addressing the assault on the Capitol.

Send any friend a story

As a subscriber, you have 10 gift articles to give each month. Anyone can read what you share.

Stewart Rhodes wearing a dark hat, a dark shirt and a black eye patch.

By Alan Feuer

A few hours after Stewart Rhodes, the leader of the Oath Keepers militia, was sentenced on Thursday to 18 years in prison for his role in a seditious conspiracy to instigate the pro-Trump violence of Jan. 6, Matthew M. Graves, the federal prosecutor who has overseen the government’s investigation of the Capitol attack, released a statement with a fact that underscored the landmark nature of the moment.

“More people were convicted of seditious conspiracy in connection with the siege of the Capitol on Jan. 6, 2021,” Mr. Graves wrote, “than any other criminal event since the statute was enacted during the Civil War.”

Nearly two and a half years after supporters of President Donald J. Trump stormed the Capitol in an effort to derail the peaceful transfer of power, Mr. Rhodes’s sentencing was the most high-profile statement of accountability yet for an episode that seems certain to occupy a dark place in American history and remains a flashpoint in American politics.

Amid the more than 1,000 criminal cases filed so far by the Justice Department against those who played a role in the attack, the prosecution of Mr. Rhodes, accused of plotting to mobilize his followers into storming the Capitol in two separate military-style “stacks,” stood out in a way that the judge who sentenced him, Amit P. Mehta, articulated in court on Thursday.

“Mr. Rhodes, you are convicted of seditious conspiracy; you are a lawyer, you understand what that means,” Judge Mehta said. “Seditious conspiracy is among the most serious crimes an individual in America can commit.”

Perhaps for just that reason, sedition charges have been used only rarely over the decades, reserved for select groups of defendants who prosecutors argued uniquely threatened the government.

Sedition cases have been filed against communists, Islamic terrorists and white nationalists. Some of the cases have succeeded. But given that the statute requires prosecutors to prove an agreement to use violent force to oppose the laws or authority of the government — a difficult hurdle to jump over — many of the cases have failed.

The Jan. 6 sedition trials have all taken place just a brief walk from where the attack itself occurred — in the federal courthouse that sits only a few blocks down Constitution Avenue from the Capitol.

Scholars of political violence have widely viewed the proceedings as a major effort by the Justice Department to respond to the assault with significant indictments and to go as far as the law will allow in holding the feet of extremists to the fire and in defending the foundations of the democratic system.

There have been three separate Jan. 6 sedition trials so far, which have led to a total of 10 sedition convictions and four sedition acquittals. Four more people have pleaded guilty to sedition and avoided going to trial. All of these defendants were members of either Mr. Rhodes’s organization, the Oath Keepers, or the Proud Boys, another prominent far-right group.

But even the flurry of sedition convictions has done little to stem the larger tide of far-right radicalism . Just this month, a Texas man in thrall to Nazi ideology fatally shot eight people at an outlet mall outside of Dallas. In late April, as one of the sedition trials went to the jury, a neo-Nazi group flying a swastika flag protested a drag show in Columbus, Ohio.

At the same time, the two main Republican presidential contenders — Mr. Trump and Gov. Ron DeSantis of Florida — have both suggested that they might issue pardons to many of those convicted of taking part in the events of Jan. 6. As Mr. Rhodes himself said at his sentencing hearing, the Capitol riot defendants are increasingly viewed by many people on the right not as violent criminals, but as “patriots” and “political prisoners.”

On Friday, two Oath Keepers who were on trial with Mr. Rhodes, Jessica Watkins and Kenneth Harrelson, were given prison sentences of eight and a half years and four years, respectively — though on charges of obstructing the certification of the election, rather than sedition. Four members of the Proud Boys convicted of sedition — including their former leader, Enrique Tarrio — are scheduled to be sentenced in August with a fifth member of the group who was found guilty of lesser conspiracy counts.

During all of the trials — two that involved the Oath Keepers and one that focused on the Proud Boys — defense lawyers repeatedly claimed that prosecutors proved their case only by expanding, or even by distorting, the traditional understanding of conspiracy law.

The government, the lawyers pointed out, was never able to find a smoking gun indicating that either group had formed a clear plan or reached an explicit agreement to use force to stop the lawful transfer of power on Jan. 6. And that was despite having collected hundreds of thousands of internal text messages and turning several members of the groups into cooperating witnesses.

The lawyers also argued that the defendants who went to trial were not all that violent on Jan. 6, especially compared with other rioters. Mr. Tarrio, for instance, was 50 miles away from Washington in a Baltimore hotel room at time of the attack.

In response, prosecutors argued that all of the defendants had ties to comrades who did commit violence at the Capitol or had stashed an arsenal of weapons at the ready in Virginia. They also claimed that criminal conspiracies are rarely hatched in the light of day and that the agreements by the Oath Keepers and Proud Boys to disrupt the democratic process were reached implicitly and in an unspoken manner.

“It can be a mutual understanding reached with a wink and a nod,” Conor Mulroe, a prosecutor at the Proud Boys trial, told the jury during closing argument s.

The fact that both judges and juries in Washington have appeared to accept this expansive definition of conspiracy has given the Justice Department prominent victories in prosecuting the rioters who were on the ground on Jan. 6.

But the prosecutions have done little to resolve a different question: What legal responsibility does Mr. Trump bear for an attack intended to keep him in office despite his loss at the polls?

That issue is the focus of an investigation by Jack Smith, the special counsel appointed by Attorney General Merrick B. Garland. It is not clear what charges, if any, Mr. Smith might bring against the former president in the Jan. 6 investigation, but the outcome of the Oath Keepers and Proud Boys prosecutions has led some lawyers and legal experts to wonder if a similar approach might be used in building a sedition case against Mr. Trump.

If all it takes is a wink or a nod, the theory goes, to join conspirators in a plot to violently oppose the government’s authority, then could it be possible to construct a seditious conspiracy connecting Mr. Trump to the mob that stormed the Capitol through his incendiary speeches and tweets ?

More than a year ago, Judge Mehta himself issued a ruling in three civil lawsuits that sought to hold Mr. Trump accountable for the violence of the Capitol attack, suggesting there was evidence that the former president had in fact entered into a conspiracy with the Oath Keepers and Proud Boys on Jan. 6.

More important, Judge Mehta also said that it was plausible that Mr. Trump — largely on the basis of his words alone — had aided and abetted the ordinary rioters who threatened or assaulted police officers that day.

But Alan Rozenshtein, a former Justice Department official who now teaches at the University of Minnesota Law School and has written extensively about sedition, cautioned that it could be difficult to use the Oath Keepers and Proud Boys cases as any kind of precedent to build a sedition case against Mr. Trump.

“Trump is a unique defendant in a league by himself,” Mr. Rozenshtein said. “He’s also a chaos agent and pinning down his actions in a way that shows he did any sort of planning has always been the tricky part.”

Zach Montague contributed reporting.

Alan Feuer covers extremism and political violence. He joined The Times in 1999. @ alanfeuer

This browser is no longer supported.

Upgrade to Microsoft Edge to take advantage of the latest features, security updates, and technical support.


Short description

Describes how PowerShell parses commands.

Long description

When you enter a command at the command prompt, PowerShell breaks the command text into a series of segments called tokens and then determines how to interpret each token.

For example, if you type:

PowerShell breaks the command into two tokens, Write-Host and book , and interprets each token independently using one of two major parsing modes: expression mode and argument mode.

As PowerShell parses command input it tries to resolve the command names to cmdlets or native executables. If a command name doesn't have an exact match, PowerShell prepends Get- to the command as a default verb. For example, PowerShell parses Service as Get-Service . It's not recommended to use this feature for the following reasons:

Expression mode

Expression mode is intended for combining expressions, required for value manipulation in a scripting language. Expressions are representations of values in PowerShell syntax, and can be simple or composite, for example:

Literal expressions are direct representations of their values:

Variable expressions carry the value of the variable they reference:

Operators combine other expressions for evaluation:

Argument mode

When parsing, PowerShell first looks to interpret input as an expression. But when a command invocation is encountered, parsing continues in argument mode. If you have arguments that contain spaces, such as paths, then you must enclose those argument values in quotes.

Argument mode is designed for parsing arguments and parameters for commands in a shell environment. All input is treated as an expandable string unless it uses one of the following syntaxes:

Dollar sign ( $ ) followed by a variable name begins a variable reference, otherwise it's interpreted as part of the expandable string. The variable reference can include member access or indexing.

Quotation marks ( ' and " ) begin strings

Braces ( {} ) begin a new script blocks

Commas ( , ) introduce lists passed as arrays, unless the command being called is a native application, in which case they're interpreted as part of the expandable string. Initial, consecutive or trailing commas aren't supported.

Parentheses ( () ) begin a new expression

Subexpression operator ( $() ) begins an embedded expression

Initial at sign ( @ ) begins expression syntaxes such as splatting ( @args ), arrays ( @(1,2,3) ), and hash table literals ( @{a=1;b=2} ).

() , $() , and @() at the start of a token create a new parsing context that can contain expressions or nested commands.

Everything else is treated as an expandable string, except metacharacters that still need escaping. See Handling special characters .

The stop-parsing token ( --% ) changes the interpretation of all remaining arguments. For more information, see the stop-parsing token section below.

The following table provides several examples of tokens processed in expression mode and argument mode and the evaluation of those tokens. For these examples, the value of the variable $a is 4 .

Every token can be interpreted as some kind of object type, such as Boolean or String . PowerShell attempts to determine the object type from the expression. The object type depends on the type of parameter a command expects and on whether PowerShell knows how to convert the argument to the correct type. The following table shows several examples of the types assigned to values returned by the expressions.

Handling special characters

The backtick character ( ` ) can be used to escape any special character in an expression. This is most useful for escaping the argument-mode metacharacters that you want to use as literal characters rather than as a metacharacter. For example, to use the dollar sign ( $ ) as a literal in an expandable string:

Line continuation

The backtick character can also be used at the end of a line to allow you to continue the input on the next line. This is improve the readability of a command that takes several parameters with long names and argument values. For example:

However, you should avoid using line continuation.

PowerShell provides several ways break lines at natural points in the syntax.

For large parameter set, use splatting instead. For example:

Passing arguments to native commands

When running native commands from PowerShell, the arguments are first parsed by PowerShell. The parsed arguments are then joined into a single string with each parameter separated by a space.

For example, the following command calls the icacls.exe program.

To run this command in PowerShell 2.0, you must use escape characters to prevent PowerShell from misinterpreting the parentheses.

The stop-parsing token

Beginning in PowerShell 3.0, you can use the stop-parsing ( --% ) token to stop PowerShell from interpreting input as PowerShell commands or expressions.

The stop-parsing token is only intended for use on Windows platforms.

When calling a native command, place the stop-parsing token before the program arguments. This technique is much easier than using escape characters to prevent misinterpretation.

When it encounters a stop-parsing token, PowerShell treats the remaining characters in the line as a literal. The only interpretation it performs is to substitute values for environment variables that use standard Windows notation, such as %USERPROFILE% .

PowerShell sends the following command string to the icacls.exe program:

X:\VMS /grant Dom\HVAdmin:(CI)(OI)F

The stop-parsing token is effective only until the next newline or pipeline character. You can't use the line continuation character ( ` ) to extend its effect or use a command delimiter ( ; ) to terminate its effect.

Other than %variable% environment-variable references, you can't embed any other dynamic elements in the command. Escaping a % character as %% , the way you can do inside batch files, isn't supported. %<name>% tokens are invariably expanded. If <name> doesn't refer to a defined environment variable the token is passed through as-is.

You can't use stream redirection (like >file.txt ) because they're passed verbatim as arguments to the target command.

In the following example, the first step runs a command without using the stop-parsing token. PowerShell evaluates the quoted string and passes the value (without quotes) to cmd.exe , which results in an error.

Some commands on Windows systems are implemented as a Windows batch file. For example, that az command for Azure CLI is a Windows batch file.

Passing arguments that contain quote characters

Some native commands expect arguments that contain quote characters. PowerShell 7.3 changed the way the command line is parsed for native commands.

The new behavior is a breaking change from the Window PowerShell 5.1 behavior. This may break scripts and automation that work around the various issues when invoking native applications. Use the stop-parsing token ( --% ) or the Start-Process cmdlet to avoid the native argument passing when needed.

The new $PSNativeCommandArgumentPassing preference variable controls this behavior. This variable allows you to select the behavior at runtime. The valid values are Legacy , Standard , and Windows . The default behavior is platform specific. On Windows platforms, the default setting is Windows and non-Windows platforms default to Standard .

Legacy is the historic behavior. The behavior of Windows and Standard mode are the same except, in Windows mode, invocations of the following files automatically use the Legacy style argument passing.

If the $PSNativeCommandArgumentPassing is set to either Legacy or Standard , the parser doesn't check for these files.

The following examples use the TestExe.exe tool. You can build TestExe from the source code. See TestExe in the PowerShell source repository.

New behaviors made available by this change:

Literal or expandable strings with embedded quotes the quotes are now preserved:

Empty strings as arguments are now preserved:

The goal of these examples is to pass the directory path (with spaces and quotes) "C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft\" to a native command so that it received the path as a quoted string.

In Windows or Standard mode, the following examples produce the expected results:

To get the same results in Legacy mode, you must escape the quotes or use the stop-parsing token ( --% ):

The backslash ( \ ) character isn't recognized as an escape character by PowerShell. It's the escape character used by the underlying API for ProcessStartInfo.ArgumentList .

PowerShell 7.3 also added the ability to trace parameter binding for native commands. For more information, see Trace-Command .

Passing arguments to PowerShell commands

Beginning in PowerShell 3.0, you can use the end-of-parameters token ( -- ) to stop PowerShell from interpreting input as PowerShell parameters. This is a convention specified in the POSIX Shell and Utilities specification.

The end-of-parameters token

The end-of-parameters token ( -- ) indicates that all arguments following it are to be passed in their actual form as though double quotes were placed around them. For example, using -- you can output the string -InputObject without using quotes or having it interpreted as a parameter:

Unlike the stop-parsing ( --% ) token, any values following the -- token can be interpreted as expressions by PowerShell.

This behavior only applies to PowerShell commands. If you use the -- token when calling an external command, the -- string is passed as an argument to that command.

The output shows that -- is passed as an argument to TestExe .

Submit and view feedback for

Additional resources


  1. 9+ Counter Argument Samples

    argumentative sentence sample

  2. PPT

    argumentative sentence sample

  3. FREE 16+ Argumentative Writing Samples & Templates in PDF

    argumentative sentence sample

  4. Argumentative+Writing.jpg (960×720)

    argumentative sentence sample

  5. Counter-Argument Example

    argumentative sentence sample

  6. How To Outline an Argumentative Essay in 4 Steps Introductory paragraph

    argumentative sentence sample


  1. Argumentative essay writing

  2. Academic reading and writing in English Part 8: What is an argumentative essay?

  3. Chapter 8

  4. Hook sentence for essay writing

  5. Argumentative essay papers I Academic writing

  6. Argumentative Writing Explained: Writing the Conclusion


  1. How to Write an Argumentative Essay

    Examples of argumentative essay prompts At a university level, all the prompts below imply an argumentative essay as the appropriate response. Your research should lead you to develop a specific position on the topic. The essay then argues for that position and aims to convince the reader by presenting your evidence, evaluation and analysis.

  2. 3 Strong Argumentative Essay Examples, Analyzed

    Need to defend your opinion on an issue? Argumentative essays are one of the most popular types of essays you'll write in school. They combine persuasive arguments with fact-based research, and, when done well, can be powerful tools for making someone agree with your point of view.

  3. How to Write a Good Argumentative Essay: Easy Step-by-Step Guide

    1. Introductory paragraph. The first paragraph of your essay should outline the topic, provide background information necessary to understand your argument, outline the evidence you will present and states your thesis. 2. The thesis statement. This is part of your first paragraph.

  4. Argumentative Essays

    The argumentative essay is a genre of writing that requires the student to investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner. Please note: Some confusion may occur between the argumentative essay and the expository essay.

  5. How to Write Topic Sentences

    Step 1: Write a thesis statement The first step to developing your topic sentences is to make sure you have a strong thesis statement. The thesis statement sums up the purpose and argument of the whole paper. Thesis statement example

  6. How to Write an Argumentative Essay Outline

    Write with Grammarly How is an argumentative essay structured? An argumentative essay uses facts, data, and logical reasoning to substantiate a specific stance on any given topic. They are typically structured to "build an argument," with a clear thesis statement, unambiguous conclusion, and as much evidential support as needed.

  7. Good Argumentative Essay Examples and Writing Tips

    > Argumentative Essay Examples Written by Nova A. Argumentative Essay Examples: Samples & Tips 7 min read Published on: Feb 15, 2018 Last updated on: Feb 23, 2023 On This Page Good Argumentative Essay Examples Argumentative Essay Writing Tips Get Help From An Expert Argumentative Essay Writer

  8. 20 Easy and Free Argumentative Essay Examples for Students

    Written by Cathy A. Best Argumentative Essay Examples for Your Help 6 min read Published on: Mar 10, 2023 Last updated on: Mar 9, 2023 On This Page Good Argumentative Essay Examples How to Start an Argumentative Essay Example Argumentative essays are one of the most common types of essay writing.

  9. Argumentative Definition & Meaning

    1 : given to argument : tending to argue : having or showing a tendency to disagree or argue with other people in an angry way : disputatious He became argumentative when confronted with the allegation. an argumentative temperament … had been a pigheaded, argumentative, irascible, and unlikable man … Colleen McCullough 2

  10. argument in a sentence

    Examples of argument in a sentence, how to use it. 98 examples: To this end, they examine both the central empirical arguments and the rhetoric…

  11. PDF Argumentative Essay Examples Sentence Starters


  12. Examples of "Argumentative" in a Sentence

    How to use Argumentative in a sentence argumentative Meanings Synonyms Sentences What an argumentative fellow you are, Monsieur Pierre! 97 46 Thus both are hortatory writings, the one argumentative in form, the other prophetic, after the manner of later Old Testament prophets whose messages came in visions and similitudes. 43 36

  13. Argumentative Essay Examples (3 College Samples to Use)

    Easy to use. Rated 4.8 out of 5. When writing an argumentative essay, it can be helpful to look at examples and samples that provide the structure of the outline for the essay form. Here are argumentative essay examples to use when writing your university-level essay. Argumentative essay What is an argumentative essay?

  14. Strong Thesis Statements

    Although the scope of your paper might seem overwhelming at the start, generally the narrower the thesis the more effective your argument will be. Your thesis or claim must be supported by evidence. The broader your claim is, the more evidence you will need to convince readers that your position is right. Example of a thesis that is too broad:

  15. Argumentative in a Sentence

    Examples of argumentative in a sentence. First example: All night, the president was argumentative without making any kind of cohesive argument for his candidacy. ... Select any of the terms below to the see the given word or phrase in real example sentences. This form of contextual learning is the key to mastery of English. phenomena; broke into;

  16. PDF Useful Argumentative Essay Words and Phrases

    Below are examples of signposts that are used in argumentative essays. Signposts enable the reader to follow our arguments easily. When pointing out opposing arguments (Cons): Opponents of this idea claim/maintain that… Those who disagree/ are against these ideas may say/ assert that… Some people may disagree with this idea,

  17. 130 New Prompts for Argumentative Writing

    In 2017, we compiled a list of 401 argumentative writing prompts, all drawn from our daily Student Opinion column. Now, we're rounding up 130 more we've published since then ...

  18. 125 Strong Argumentative Essay Topics For Your Next Paper

    Thesis Closely related to having a strong argument is your formal and specific message, or your thesis. The thesis is your complex argument condensed into one sentence. Your thesis needs to be able to be well-reasoned, researched and strong. All facts, data and essay conjecture needs to be able to come back to prove this one-sentence thesis.

  19. How to Write a Position Paper, With Examples

    1 Choose a topic. The first step in writing a position paper is choosing your topic. You may be assigned a topic, or you may need to develop a topic yourself. In either case, a good topic for a position paper is one that allows you to take a definable, defendable stance that you can back up with relevant data.

  20. Examples of 'argumentative' in a sentence

    We welcome feedback: report an example sentence to the Collins team. Read more…. She has become very argumentative and difficult. The Sun. ( 2012) He was in an argumentative mood and appeared disagreeable with his assignment in Denver. Times, Sunday Times. ( 2016)

  21. How to Write a Thesis Statement: Examples and Tips to Polish Writing

    Step 4: Refine Your Thesis Statement. Once you have developed your answer, you must refine it into a strong thesis statement. Your thesis statement should be an assertive sentence that summarizes your main idea. It should be specific, relevant, and debatable.

  22. What Is an Argumentative Essay? Simple Examples To Guide You

    Advertisement General Structure and Format of an Argumentative Essay While you do have a little wiggle room, the structure and format of the argumentative essay is fairly rigid. You're basically stating your argument and then presenting all your evidence to prove that argument.

  23. Oath Keepers founder gets 18 years in prison, longest Jan. 6 sentence

    Rhodes' prison term represents the longest sentence for any of the 1,000-plus people charged in connection with the Jan. 6, 2021, Capitol attack by supporters of Republican then-President Trump in ...

  24. Man who fatally stabbed wife after an argument over their child's

    Brown was sentenced to 24 years in prison with a non-parole period of 17 years. Adam Brown, 41, will spend at least 17 years in prison for murdering Chen Cheng in April 2022, a crime described by ...

  25. Sedition Sentence for Oath Keepers' Stewart Rhodes Marks Moment of

    A few hours after Stewart Rhodes, the leader of the Oath Keepers militia, was sentenced on Thursday to 18 years in prison for his role in a seditious conspiracy to instigate the pro-Trump violence ...

  26. about Parsing

    Note. As PowerShell parses command input it tries to resolve the command names to cmdlets or native executables. If a command name doesn't have an exact match, PowerShell prepends Get-to the command as a default verb. For example, PowerShell parses Service as Get-Service.It's not recommended to use this feature for the following reasons: