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Public Service Motivation, Essay Example

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Public Service Motivation, Essay Example

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Public service motivation accomplishes the understanding and the importance of commitment to performance goals. The understanding of the goals of the employee facilitates the acceptance of performance goals by the employees. It portrays the level at which employees are able to stay on track despite challenges and shortcomings in their productivity. Dresang (2007) notes that, it is crucial for employees to understand that their goals are achievable in order to ensure performance. The basic tools in the achievement of this goal are self-efficacy and job goal’s importance.

Self-efficacy dictates that regardless of the importance of performance goals set in place, the commitment of the employees is reliant on the achievability of their objectives. The judgment of the employee’s personal capability to perform is essential in the motivation of the employee towards productivity. Therefore, the role of self-efficacy is portrayed by the individual commitment, and incentive towards the attainment of the predefined goals. Self-efficacy also enlightens the behavior and persistence of the employee towards this goal. Self-efficacy is a decisive factor in motivation as it assists individuals applies the required effort in the performance of their tasks.

On the other hand, Hays & Kearney (2003) provide that the concept of job goal importance is also a necessary factor as it drives the motivation of the employees towards their perceived objectives. Although the achievement of self-goals is crucial, the employees also work towards the achievement of performance objectives. The individual goals should be in line with the performance objectives to ensure effective performance of the employees. The enhancement of the performance of employees in this regard can be connected to the mission, task, and the public service function available to employees.

The needs of the individual are decisive factors to consider in setting the role of motivation in performance and productivity. The hierarchy of the individual’s needs portrays the level of commitment of the employee towards achievement of the perceived goals. The higher the needs of the individuals in the hierarchy, the greater are the motivation to achieve that goal. Self-actualization takes priority in the hierarchy followed by self-esteem and then love and belonging to the individual. The need for safety of the individual and other psychological needs also form part of the hierarchy of needs but on a lower level. In consideration of this, it is imperative that the productivity of the individual and the consequential performance relies on the importance of the needs of the individual associated with the task.

Public service motivation ensures that individuals participate in the management process by making the employees’ part of the process. This ensures that the objectives of both the individual and the performance objectives put into consideration (Wright, 2007). The overall quality management also ensures that the quality of the work of the employee remains at a high standard. This is achieved by taking into context the employee information on the production process and ensuring they participate. Employee participation helps to identify the operational challenges develop opportunities as well as assist the employees in developing their skills and talent. Employee satisfaction can also be achieved using motivation in the performance of the tasks by these employees. It is noteworthy that motivation does not necessarily stem from money but can be because of a commitment to a good cause.

  Strategic human resource management

The components of strategic human resource thinking include organization, which implies that the essence of a good strategy should be well organized to fit the objectives of the company, as well as keep in touch with other intrinsic and extrinsic factors including technology. Reorganization of the strategies initially developed goes a long way in the successful; planning of any strategy. Organization is key in the planning process as this component ensures that the adopted strategies are suitable, well organized and effective. Given the change of operational performance of organizations, the component of the organization is vital to ensure that the perceived goals achieved. Another component in strategic human resource thinking is the element of staffing. Staffing is critical as the operations of an organization rely majorly on the availability and productivity of its staff. It is, therefore, essential that an organization has sufficient staff and that the staff qualifies for the positions (Dresang, 2007)). The importance of staffing in the planning process is essential, as it is necessary to consider the required number of staff to facilitate the smooth operations of the company as well as to identify overstaffed areas, or understaffed areas to ensure a balance in staffing.

Also, important is the component of employee development, which provides for the advancement of the employees. Paarlberg & Lavigna (2010) provides that, employee development incorporate the acquisition of knowledge and skills by the employees in the course of business to guarantee a high level of efficiency maintained or enhance the performance of the organization. It is noteworthy that better employee development results from staffing and organization. Staffing identifies the pool of employees that require development while the organization stipulates the appropriate development strategies and measures. Accordingly, employee development integrates into the planning proceeds through the employment of career development, skill training, and motivation achieved by succession planning. Compensation is another crucial component in the process of strategic human resource planning, and it involves the fulfillment of the needs of the employees. Low wages ultimately results in lack of motivation of the employees and, therefore, implies that the performance of the employees become compromised resulting in poor productivity. Given the importance of compensation, it becomes necessary to incorporate the element of compensation in the planning process (Hays & Kearney, 2003). Compensation can be integrated into the planning procedure by succession planning putting into consideration the factors of organizational policies and the element of staffing.

Contracting, on the other hand, plays a vital role in human resource management thinking and aims at meeting the staffing needs of the company. The factors to put into consideration in contracting include the necessity, the duration the organization needs the employee and both staffing and organizational strategies employed by the organization. In incorporating the element of staffing into an organization, it is essential to consider the workload available the finances available for contracting as well as the goals of the company (Wright, 2007). Planning of contracting policies adopted also rely on the cost benefit analysis of the strategy. An equally vital component of strategic human resource management planning is the component of result evaluation, which essentially measures the planning policies adopted. It is critical to point out that this component of strategic human resource thinking looks into all the other components of strategic human resource planning in order to arrive at an elaborate evaluation of the results attained.

Role of human resource manager

The role of a human resource manager in productivity improvements is a crucial one since it ensures that the personnel work towards the attainment of the perceived objectives of the company. The human resource managers position to facilitate the improvements of productivity because of control and supervision of the organization’s staff (Buelens, 2007). It is noteworthy that the role of the human resource manager in the attainment of this goal is clearly articulated.

The major role of the human resource manager in this perspective is the job and workflow design. This is a clear clarification of the expected mission of the task, which is essential as the objectives set as well as outlining the expectations. Job design geared towards the achievement of total quality management aimed at streamlining operations and achieving productivity in line with the expected outcome. The role of the manager is to set out the details and the dynamics of the job. Establishment of jobs to ensure improved performance and productivity of an organization plays a central role in the human resource manager’s role as the manager is tasked with the responsibility of staffing. Hays & Kearney (2003) articulate the direct correlation of productivity to staffing signifies that the improved productivity in an organization relies on the outcome of strategies employed by the human resource manager. Other roles of the human resource manager that lead to improved productivity are the staffing, improvement and retention of staff and motivation of employees.

Concerning the employment development and retention of the employees, the role of the human resource manager is ensuring the recruitment of qualified and competent employees. The human resource manager also ensures that talented, skilled and product oriented employees remain in the organization by motivational incentives like increased earnings. The development of employees to improve their skills and knowledge in production in order to improve the level of efficiency of the staff is the mandate of the human resource manager. The motivation of the employees is also critical to improved productivity and thus the human resource manager must endeavor to establish motivational strategies in respect to improving the performance of the employees. The manager’s role also includes ensuring a favorable working environment for employees. The manager must strive to provide an environment that is safe, and facilitates development (Dresang, 2007). This is essential because an environment that ensures undisturbed work facilitates improved productivity.

The human resource manager has the task of evaluating the efforts and the prodsuctivi8ty of the employees in order to determine clearly the areas that need changes or improvements. Without assessment of the performance of the, the human resource manager cannot be strategically positioned to develop strategies. Planning and development of strategic human resource strategies aimed at improving productivity rely on the evaluation of the current workforce to identify shortcomings and opportunities to work on them. Additionally the application of any necessary changes in staffing is the responsibility of the human resource manager. These changes are because of the evaluation conducted on the efforts and productivity of the employees undertaken by three human resource managers. Consequently, it is imperative to note that improvements in productivity rely on the decisions of the human resource manager and, therefore, the roles of the human resource manager need to be clear.

The importance of delegation to managers is that it reduces the workload of these manages. The essence of reduction of the workload of the managers ensures that they only deal with weighty issues. Through delegation, the managers delegate their functions to other individuals and only act to provide guidance for the work delegated. In this manner, the manager ensures that the work is done in accordance with the required standards while only guiding the process and not having to oversee the tasks. It is imperative that delegation takes control of the manager and places another individual in a central position ensuring that there are checks in the system (Andersen, 2010). Delegation also improves the element of motivation as the individuals whom the management tasks delegated are motivated by the trust associated with the delegation to these individuals.

Delegation of responsibility of the managers to other individuals also does away with the rigidity in the management process by developing a hierarchy that is more employees oriented. The delegation of power puts the manager in the overall position but introduces intermediaries between the manager and the employees. According to Dresang (2007), hierarchy is fundamental to an organization as it creates a culture of responsibility and creates authority within the organization. It is critical to, point out that the involvement of the staff in management can be achieved through delegation as the team leaders whom the authority is delegated to, are in touch with the objectives and perspectives of the employees. Through delegation, the employees are more likely to complete their tasks to the fullest of their abilities since there is someone to answer to apart from the overworked manager. The employees are also more at ease with their fellow employees than they are with the manager and, therefore, the concerns and suggestions of the employees expressed genuinely. Similarly, the assessment and evaluation of employees to facilitate improvement represented as the delegation of authority ensures that all employees have representation through their team leaders.

Delegation also aims at maximizing the potential of the employees because they feel they are part of the organization. Delegation makes the organization’s staff feel as if they are part of the decision making process by incorporating their opinions in the process. The motivation and contribution of the employees provide them with occupational satisfaction, which in turn provides motivation for improved performance. Delegation also presents the employees an opportunity to develop and nurture their skills and talents and help them flourish. Equally critical is that this does not only affect the employees, but it also affects the managers. Delegation allows the manager work on his/her communication skills supervision, guidance, decision making and motivation skills. In essence, delegation improves both the individual’s efficiency as well as the general performance of the company.

Furthermore, delegation helps the subordinate as well as the superior in maintaining a good relationship. Delegation gives meaning to the superior subordinate relationship through the flow of authority from the top to the bottom and signifies achievement of results. Delegation, therefore, gives stability to the working relationship. Development more so on the horizontal level can be achieved through the employment of delegation as this ensures that the organization is stable. This concept is an indispensable tool in the development of the human resource as well as the management of the organization.

Reference list

Andersen, J. A. (2010). Public versus Private Managers: How Public and Private Managers Differ in Leadership Behavior. Public Administration Review ; 70, 1; ProQuest. Pg. 131

Buelens, M., Van den, B. H. (2007 ). An Analysis of Differences in Work Motivation between Public and Private Sector Organizations. Public Administration Review ; ProQuest. Pg. 65

Dresang, D, L. (2007). Personnel management in government agencies and non profit organizations . Pearson Education Inc.

Hays, S. W. & Kearney, R. C. (2003). Public human resource management: problems and prospects. Pearson Education Inc.

Paarlberg, L. E & Lavigna, B. (2010). Transformational Leadership and Public Service Motivation: Driving . Public Administration Review ; ProQuest. Pg. 710

Wright, B. E. (2007). Public Service and Motivation: Does Mission Matter? Public Administration Review; ProQuest. Pg. 54

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Public Service Motivation


Public administrators face the challenge of motivating the employees to undertake their responsibilities, be productive as well as being efficient. The challenge arises due to issues such as intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. There are employees that are driven by intrinsic motivation, while there are others driven by extrinsic motivation. As a result, relying on a single motivation factor is likely to fail.

Part 1- Distinguishing Between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations of Employees

Intrinsic motivation is a form of motivation that is driven by internal rewards, and it arises from within since it brings about natural satisfaction to the individual involved. Extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, comes about when one is motivated to perform in order to avoid a punishment or earn a reward.

There are varied ways that a public service leader can use to know whether the motivation of employees is extrinsic or intrinsic. A good example of finding out is giving an employee a small project that they are expected to complete. An employee that is extrinsically motivated will need a lot of guidance while undertaking the project and will tend to ask a lot of question during the project execution process. There is need to offer such employees instances of praise and reward, and increased outside guidance to help them move forward. However, if an employee accomplishes the project requirements independently, he/she is regarded as being intrinsically motivated. The individual can accomplish the project requirements through the motivation that comes from within.

Part 2- How do Motivations of Employees Overlap with Public Service Motivation

Public service motivation involves specific motives if an individual based on the nature of public service work.  According to Perry and Wise, public service motives are classified in three categories: (1) norm-based, (2) affective, and (3) rational.  Norm-based public service motives involve this desire to serve the public and the public interest.   This category of motives is related to citizenship, duty, and loyalty.  Rational public service motives involve an individual doing public service as a way to satisfy their own needs.  For example, an employee may identify with a specific program or desire to advance a special interest. Affective public service motives are linked to an individual’s personal beliefs, feelings, and ideals concerning a public program.

Public service motivation tends to overlap with both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation comes in where the employees are driven to the public sector by motives such as duty, citizenship and loyalty. These are attributes that come from within an individual and are usually linked to intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, comes as result of compensation that these employees receive for their services. Despite there being a public service motivation, the employees would not be working at these public agencies if they are not receiving remuneration for their services. At the end of the day, they have to earn a living for survival.

Part 3- How Do Various Motivations Influence Personal Style as Public Service Leader

The different motivations are likely to influence the personal style that a public service leader assumes. One of the things to note is that there cannot be uniformity in the style of leadership being used. This would only result in failure since the employees involved are not motivated in a similar way. It is good for the public service to know that there are both internal and external motivators when it comes to employees. It is very important for the service leaders to identify employees that are influenced by external factors of motivation and those that are influenced by internal factors. This works as a motivation factor since it gives them the autonomy to establish creativity when executing their duties. On the other hand, the employees that are extrinsically motivated require more supervision in their day to day activities. There is also the need of using guidance and praise to ensure that they remain at the top of their “game”. Failing to consider such aspects and applying a similar style while dealing with all the employees would result to inefficiency at the workplace. For employees deriving public service motivation, it is good to assess the intrinsic and extrinsic part of their services too.

For example, in using the examples of building a park, ball field, or community center, the employees assigned to such projects must be motivated by the benefits and advantages that they are going to provide to the community members.   It is the responsibility of the public service leader to communicate these benefits and advantages to be enjoyed by the community to the employees assigned to such projects.  These employees have to be internally motivated to show up every day and get their work done to please themselves, please their public manager, and work as a team in the process.  It is also obvious these employees understand they are showing up every day to get the job done to be paid their salaries and maybe earn overtime pay or bonuses for meeting deadlines hence the need for extrinsic motivation.

Employees tend to have either intrinsic or extrinsic motivation while executing their day to day activities. It is upon the service leaders to identify what motivates the employees; without assuming that their motivation prospects are similar. While dealing with public service motivation, there is also the need of considering the intrinsic and extrinsic motivations that might be involved.

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essay on service motivation

The Importance Of Public Service Motivation

Public sector employees are often criticized for being ‘lazy, ‘overpaid’ and ‘underworked’ but it is undeniable that it is expected of them to render excellent service to the citizens of its nation. They ought to be highly reliable and driven to ensure that the needs and demands of the public are promptly addressed. People in the public organizations are anticipated to be altruistic in nature, and being a public servant is the usual advocacy, but how driven are they in fulfilling this role? This phenomenon in the field of public administration is called the Public Service Motivation (PSM). It refers to the motive of the individual to serve the public interest (Bright, 2016) that relates to one’s sense of service and duty to government and society, or an attraction to serve the public for various reasons, regardless as it is for altruistic or for self-centered purposes. According to the United Nations Development Programme Global Centre for Public Service Excellence, there is a decline of moral in the public service, as scholars argue that …show more content…

In this essay, the author

PSM is the individual’s tendency to respond to his/her psychological needs that are uniquely observed in the public organizations, and usually has a strong desire to serve the society (Perry & Wise, 1990). Studies related to PSM usually involves investigating what attracts people to serve in the public sector, or what makes government employees stay in the public service. Job security, stability, and prestige associated with the office are the factors considered by the individuals who were attracted to enter the public sector (Kjeldsen & Jacobsen, 2012 as cited by Quratulain & Khan, 2015). Whereas, lack of management support, excessive workload, lack of incentives and rewards, and internal politics hinders the development of one’s PSM (Quratulain & Khan,

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essay on service motivation

Motivation Essay

essay on service motivation

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The current state of education puts little emphasis on intrinsic motivation yet asks “how can I motivate my students?” “Children are intrinsically motivated to learn, to undertake challenges, and to solve problems” (Deci & Ryan, p. 11) and this is the theme of the research. Intrinsic motivation is already built into the child since birth and it is the education system that is tearing it down. Teachers believe that extrinsic motivation or using rewards will improve the outcome of the task and will

Motivation And Theory Of Motivation

It is suggested by psychologists that motivation can be understood as a technique that works as a model that starts and maintains behaviours. The reason we all act or do something is caused by motivation; it is related to the emotions, biology and the social factors that influence behaviour. It is usually a term used to explain why an individual will do something, the reasons behind that action. Moreover, "The term motivation refers to factors that activate, direct, and sustain goal-directed behaviour

Motivation And Extrinsic Motivation

Motivation is defined as the driving force or the reason behind any action. There are two types of motivation:- 1. Extrinsic Motivation: Extrinsic motivation is defined as the type of motivation in which the person is motivated by external benefits. These benefits can occur in tangible or intangible forms. Extrinsic motivation that is in tangible nature includes money, medals and trophies while intangible forms of extrinsic motivation includes praise, recognition etc. For example a student who works

The Motivation And Employee Motivation

The central problem that always employers and employees face is the employee motivation. The workers who put no effort to do their best in their jobs which will lead to low quality of work and give no benefit to the organization are the one who are not motivated (Amabile 1993). On the other side, employees who are apparently to be very intelligent, action oriented, ambitious, autonomous and always put an effort and sacrifice their time to put the organization at the ease are the one who feel motivated

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Essay On How To Motivate Minimum Wage Service Workers

essay on service motivation

Show More Propose three ways to motivate the minimum wage service worker. Motivating minimum wage service worker can be a little trick because most employees are worried about the compensation. Compensation is plays a major role but motivation can be showing in other different ways. Try to make the work environment fun by having celebration for birthdays, work anniversaries and recognition of work performance. This can be encouraging because the employees see that you care about them even if you can not afford to contribute to their salary. Flexible schedule is a plus especially for employees who can not keep a traditional work schedule. Career opportunities and training development can be a sure motivator. Giving them the skills to prepare for career advancement will be an extreme way of motivating to know that they will have the opportunity to further their career in a better position. Consider how communication, attitudes, behavior and culture affect team performance. Outline a guide you would use to lead a work team. I am currently in a position of lead of the Administrative staff at my job. I have five staff members that I delegate out work and help support. Everyone work ethics or standards are different and it can be very difficult because I am new to being in this position. My guide is to make sure that we are able to work as a team. Effective teamwork is crucial. The key elements for employees are the abilities to work with others, commitment, communication between the team members is vital to ensure that all know what needs to be done, and what their specific responsibilities are. You have to show the members of the …show more content… Try to mediate and resolve disputes. Everyone may not get along with each other because of different personalities. Step five: Encourage members to share information. I encourage my staff to share how they perform their job duties with each other especially if they are off of work for an extended period of

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Moreover, if my solution is applied employees will be able to work effectively and managers will save money in the long run. If you are willing to consider my proposed plan, there are ways to improve upon this plan and in time can bring in more revenue. In addition to the applied plan, new employees that are trained can be interviewed to receive feedback on the training. As the general manager, you are always looking for ways to improve the company and you know that any feedback is valuable and essential for a company to thrive. The feedback can be used to continually improve upon the way of training.…

The Deterrents Of Employee Motivation

Being recognized is important for some employee, especially for those have needs for esteem. Appropriate reward will not only improve job satisfaction, also increase motivational levels to enhance organizational effectiveness. (Quratul-Ain, 2011) Deterrents of Motivation Before starting the deterrents of motivation, it is important to know about organization diversity. This diversity does not mean people came from different culture or countries, but different personalities of employees. Each person has his or her own personalities, which verifies this person’s decisions, attitudes, and value at work.…

Essay On Sainsbury's Stakeholders Why Are They Concerned About The Business

Whether the business owners decide to give fringe benefits or not also are a concern to the employees, because that might be motivating. Employees have such a profound impact on how successful the business is by their level of productivity and motivation in their everyday duties, responsibilities and tasks. They can resort to trade unions and other various industrial move if they don’t think there working environment is safe enough. Or if they don’t think they are getting paid enough and if they don’t like Sainsbury policy. Customers Customers are concerned about the business, because they buy from that business consequently they imagine the product/service they are paying for comes in good quality.…

ACI Case Study: Recommendations To Motivate Employees

This type of pay is a great tool for organizations to encourage and motivate employees to enhance their skills. The organization benefits also by having highly trained staff help make the organization successful. The third type system is the alternative reward system. This type of system rewards employees can motivate employees with rewards that do not involve money (Phillips &Gully, 2014). Many people would prefer to be recognized and shown that they are appreciated.…

Employee Motivation Paper

This theory says that listening to the views of the employees is a crucial need as it creates the sense of belonging in the minds of the workers, which motivates them. It further says, a person beginning his career will be very concerned with his lower order needs like psychological needs such as wages and security. If these are fulfilled he will be motivated to work and it will result in better outcome. When these lower needs are not fulfilled, a worker loses his motivation and the sense of security. This is where role of organization is important that it fulfills the lower level needs of a…

Mcclelland's Theory Of Motivation In The Workplace

Employees motivated by achievement need challenging, but not project that are impossible(Fisher, 2009). As a manager I would be looking to motivate them with difficult problems or situations that can be solved. Finally workers motivated by affiliation work best in a group environment(Weinbach & Taylor, 2015). Therefore integrating them with a team could potentially produce their best work. Which eliminates risk and uncertainty which they have difficulty with.…

Cost Management Internship Report Example

The project coordinators, estimators and project manager work together to make sure a project is bid and executed efficiently. Any coordination problem between the three could lead to delay and loss in the project. In addition to all these lessons, I also attained good experience in this internship. For example, previously interacting with people was not easy for me. But during this internship I had to interact with professionals of different levels on a daily basis and slowly I developed good interpersonal relationship skills by learning from my colleagues.…

The Importance Of Becoming A Great Boss

There is a lot of responsibility in being the boss, and managing the affairs included will make the job easier. This is a process that can take some time to get right, so working on it, and its new avenues and issues by keeping up with the latest information will be very helpful. One day an employee can come into work with the same problem that has been had by many, but they see it in an unfamiliar way. This is where the good boss realizes that new solutions need to be found, instead of becoming frustrated with answers that are not working. The boss who is ready to try…

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Employee Benefit Analysis

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