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Public Service Motivation, Essay Example
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Public service motivation accomplishes the understanding and the importance of commitment to performance goals. The understanding of the goals of the employee facilitates the acceptance of performance goals by the employees. It portrays the level at which employees are able to stay on track despite challenges and shortcomings in their productivity. Dresang (2007) notes that, it is crucial for employees to understand that their goals are achievable in order to ensure performance. The basic tools in the achievement of this goal are self-efficacy and job goal’s importance.
Self-efficacy dictates that regardless of the importance of performance goals set in place, the commitment of the employees is reliant on the achievability of their objectives. The judgment of the employee’s personal capability to perform is essential in the motivation of the employee towards productivity. Therefore, the role of self-efficacy is portrayed by the individual commitment, and incentive towards the attainment of the predefined goals. Self-efficacy also enlightens the behavior and persistence of the employee towards this goal. Self-efficacy is a decisive factor in motivation as it assists individuals applies the required effort in the performance of their tasks.
On the other hand, Hays & Kearney (2003) provide that the concept of job goal importance is also a necessary factor as it drives the motivation of the employees towards their perceived objectives. Although the achievement of self-goals is crucial, the employees also work towards the achievement of performance objectives. The individual goals should be in line with the performance objectives to ensure effective performance of the employees. The enhancement of the performance of employees in this regard can be connected to the mission, task, and the public service function available to employees.
The needs of the individual are decisive factors to consider in setting the role of motivation in performance and productivity. The hierarchy of the individual’s needs portrays the level of commitment of the employee towards achievement of the perceived goals. The higher the needs of the individuals in the hierarchy, the greater are the motivation to achieve that goal. Self-actualization takes priority in the hierarchy followed by self-esteem and then love and belonging to the individual. The need for safety of the individual and other psychological needs also form part of the hierarchy of needs but on a lower level. In consideration of this, it is imperative that the productivity of the individual and the consequential performance relies on the importance of the needs of the individual associated with the task.
Public service motivation ensures that individuals participate in the management process by making the employees’ part of the process. This ensures that the objectives of both the individual and the performance objectives put into consideration (Wright, 2007). The overall quality management also ensures that the quality of the work of the employee remains at a high standard. This is achieved by taking into context the employee information on the production process and ensuring they participate. Employee participation helps to identify the operational challenges develop opportunities as well as assist the employees in developing their skills and talent. Employee satisfaction can also be achieved using motivation in the performance of the tasks by these employees. It is noteworthy that motivation does not necessarily stem from money but can be because of a commitment to a good cause.
Strategic human resource management
The components of strategic human resource thinking include organization, which implies that the essence of a good strategy should be well organized to fit the objectives of the company, as well as keep in touch with other intrinsic and extrinsic factors including technology. Reorganization of the strategies initially developed goes a long way in the successful; planning of any strategy. Organization is key in the planning process as this component ensures that the adopted strategies are suitable, well organized and effective. Given the change of operational performance of organizations, the component of the organization is vital to ensure that the perceived goals achieved. Another component in strategic human resource thinking is the element of staffing. Staffing is critical as the operations of an organization rely majorly on the availability and productivity of its staff. It is, therefore, essential that an organization has sufficient staff and that the staff qualifies for the positions (Dresang, 2007)). The importance of staffing in the planning process is essential, as it is necessary to consider the required number of staff to facilitate the smooth operations of the company as well as to identify overstaffed areas, or understaffed areas to ensure a balance in staffing.
Also, important is the component of employee development, which provides for the advancement of the employees. Paarlberg & Lavigna (2010) provides that, employee development incorporate the acquisition of knowledge and skills by the employees in the course of business to guarantee a high level of efficiency maintained or enhance the performance of the organization. It is noteworthy that better employee development results from staffing and organization. Staffing identifies the pool of employees that require development while the organization stipulates the appropriate development strategies and measures. Accordingly, employee development integrates into the planning proceeds through the employment of career development, skill training, and motivation achieved by succession planning. Compensation is another crucial component in the process of strategic human resource planning, and it involves the fulfillment of the needs of the employees. Low wages ultimately results in lack of motivation of the employees and, therefore, implies that the performance of the employees become compromised resulting in poor productivity. Given the importance of compensation, it becomes necessary to incorporate the element of compensation in the planning process (Hays & Kearney, 2003). Compensation can be integrated into the planning procedure by succession planning putting into consideration the factors of organizational policies and the element of staffing.
Contracting, on the other hand, plays a vital role in human resource management thinking and aims at meeting the staffing needs of the company. The factors to put into consideration in contracting include the necessity, the duration the organization needs the employee and both staffing and organizational strategies employed by the organization. In incorporating the element of staffing into an organization, it is essential to consider the workload available the finances available for contracting as well as the goals of the company (Wright, 2007). Planning of contracting policies adopted also rely on the cost benefit analysis of the strategy. An equally vital component of strategic human resource management planning is the component of result evaluation, which essentially measures the planning policies adopted. It is critical to point out that this component of strategic human resource thinking looks into all the other components of strategic human resource planning in order to arrive at an elaborate evaluation of the results attained.
Role of human resource manager
The role of a human resource manager in productivity improvements is a crucial one since it ensures that the personnel work towards the attainment of the perceived objectives of the company. The human resource managers position to facilitate the improvements of productivity because of control and supervision of the organization’s staff (Buelens, 2007). It is noteworthy that the role of the human resource manager in the attainment of this goal is clearly articulated.
The major role of the human resource manager in this perspective is the job and workflow design. This is a clear clarification of the expected mission of the task, which is essential as the objectives set as well as outlining the expectations. Job design geared towards the achievement of total quality management aimed at streamlining operations and achieving productivity in line with the expected outcome. The role of the manager is to set out the details and the dynamics of the job. Establishment of jobs to ensure improved performance and productivity of an organization plays a central role in the human resource manager’s role as the manager is tasked with the responsibility of staffing. Hays & Kearney (2003) articulate the direct correlation of productivity to staffing signifies that the improved productivity in an organization relies on the outcome of strategies employed by the human resource manager. Other roles of the human resource manager that lead to improved productivity are the staffing, improvement and retention of staff and motivation of employees.
Concerning the employment development and retention of the employees, the role of the human resource manager is ensuring the recruitment of qualified and competent employees. The human resource manager also ensures that talented, skilled and product oriented employees remain in the organization by motivational incentives like increased earnings. The development of employees to improve their skills and knowledge in production in order to improve the level of efficiency of the staff is the mandate of the human resource manager. The motivation of the employees is also critical to improved productivity and thus the human resource manager must endeavor to establish motivational strategies in respect to improving the performance of the employees. The manager’s role also includes ensuring a favorable working environment for employees. The manager must strive to provide an environment that is safe, and facilitates development (Dresang, 2007). This is essential because an environment that ensures undisturbed work facilitates improved productivity.
The human resource manager has the task of evaluating the efforts and the prodsuctivi8ty of the employees in order to determine clearly the areas that need changes or improvements. Without assessment of the performance of the, the human resource manager cannot be strategically positioned to develop strategies. Planning and development of strategic human resource strategies aimed at improving productivity rely on the evaluation of the current workforce to identify shortcomings and opportunities to work on them. Additionally the application of any necessary changes in staffing is the responsibility of the human resource manager. These changes are because of the evaluation conducted on the efforts and productivity of the employees undertaken by three human resource managers. Consequently, it is imperative to note that improvements in productivity rely on the decisions of the human resource manager and, therefore, the roles of the human resource manager need to be clear.
The importance of delegation to managers is that it reduces the workload of these manages. The essence of reduction of the workload of the managers ensures that they only deal with weighty issues. Through delegation, the managers delegate their functions to other individuals and only act to provide guidance for the work delegated. In this manner, the manager ensures that the work is done in accordance with the required standards while only guiding the process and not having to oversee the tasks. It is imperative that delegation takes control of the manager and places another individual in a central position ensuring that there are checks in the system (Andersen, 2010). Delegation also improves the element of motivation as the individuals whom the management tasks delegated are motivated by the trust associated with the delegation to these individuals.
Delegation of responsibility of the managers to other individuals also does away with the rigidity in the management process by developing a hierarchy that is more employees oriented. The delegation of power puts the manager in the overall position but introduces intermediaries between the manager and the employees. According to Dresang (2007), hierarchy is fundamental to an organization as it creates a culture of responsibility and creates authority within the organization. It is critical to, point out that the involvement of the staff in management can be achieved through delegation as the team leaders whom the authority is delegated to, are in touch with the objectives and perspectives of the employees. Through delegation, the employees are more likely to complete their tasks to the fullest of their abilities since there is someone to answer to apart from the overworked manager. The employees are also more at ease with their fellow employees than they are with the manager and, therefore, the concerns and suggestions of the employees expressed genuinely. Similarly, the assessment and evaluation of employees to facilitate improvement represented as the delegation of authority ensures that all employees have representation through their team leaders.
Delegation also aims at maximizing the potential of the employees because they feel they are part of the organization. Delegation makes the organization’s staff feel as if they are part of the decision making process by incorporating their opinions in the process. The motivation and contribution of the employees provide them with occupational satisfaction, which in turn provides motivation for improved performance. Delegation also presents the employees an opportunity to develop and nurture their skills and talents and help them flourish. Equally critical is that this does not only affect the employees, but it also affects the managers. Delegation allows the manager work on his/her communication skills supervision, guidance, decision making and motivation skills. In essence, delegation improves both the individual’s efficiency as well as the general performance of the company.
Furthermore, delegation helps the subordinate as well as the superior in maintaining a good relationship. Delegation gives meaning to the superior subordinate relationship through the flow of authority from the top to the bottom and signifies achievement of results. Delegation, therefore, gives stability to the working relationship. Development more so on the horizontal level can be achieved through the employment of delegation as this ensures that the organization is stable. This concept is an indispensable tool in the development of the human resource as well as the management of the organization.
Andersen, J. A. (2010). Public versus Private Managers: How Public and Private Managers Differ in Leadership Behavior. Public Administration Review ; 70, 1; ProQuest. Pg. 131
Buelens, M., Van den, B. H. (2007 ). An Analysis of Differences in Work Motivation between Public and Private Sector Organizations. Public Administration Review ; ProQuest. Pg. 65
Dresang, D, L. (2007). Personnel management in government agencies and non profit organizations . Pearson Education Inc.
Hays, S. W. & Kearney, R. C. (2003). Public human resource management: problems and prospects. Pearson Education Inc.
Paarlberg, L. E & Lavigna, B. (2010). Transformational Leadership and Public Service Motivation: Driving . Public Administration Review ; ProQuest. Pg. 710
Wright, B. E. (2007). Public Service and Motivation: Does Mission Matter? Public Administration Review; ProQuest. Pg. 54
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Public Service Motivation
- Business & Management
Public administrators face the challenge of motivating the employees to undertake their responsibilities, be productive as well as being efficient. The challenge arises due to issues such as intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. There are employees that are driven by intrinsic motivation, while there are others driven by extrinsic motivation. As a result, relying on a single motivation factor is likely to fail.
Part 1- Distinguishing Between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations of Employees
Intrinsic motivation is a form of motivation that is driven by internal rewards, and it arises from within since it brings about natural satisfaction to the individual involved. Extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, comes about when one is motivated to perform in order to avoid a punishment or earn a reward.
There are varied ways that a public service leader can use to know whether the motivation of employees is extrinsic or intrinsic. A good example of finding out is giving an employee a small project that they are expected to complete. An employee that is extrinsically motivated will need a lot of guidance while undertaking the project and will tend to ask a lot of question during the project execution process. There is need to offer such employees instances of praise and reward, and increased outside guidance to help them move forward. However, if an employee accomplishes the project requirements independently, he/she is regarded as being intrinsically motivated. The individual can accomplish the project requirements through the motivation that comes from within.
Part 2- How do Motivations of Employees Overlap with Public Service Motivation
Public service motivation involves specific motives if an individual based on the nature of public service work. According to Perry and Wise, public service motives are classified in three categories: (1) norm-based, (2) affective, and (3) rational. Norm-based public service motives involve this desire to serve the public and the public interest. This category of motives is related to citizenship, duty, and loyalty. Rational public service motives involve an individual doing public service as a way to satisfy their own needs. For example, an employee may identify with a specific program or desire to advance a special interest. Affective public service motives are linked to an individual’s personal beliefs, feelings, and ideals concerning a public program.
Public service motivation tends to overlap with both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation comes in where the employees are driven to the public sector by motives such as duty, citizenship and loyalty. These are attributes that come from within an individual and are usually linked to intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, comes as result of compensation that these employees receive for their services. Despite there being a public service motivation, the employees would not be working at these public agencies if they are not receiving remuneration for their services. At the end of the day, they have to earn a living for survival.
Part 3- How Do Various Motivations Influence Personal Style as Public Service Leader
The different motivations are likely to influence the personal style that a public service leader assumes. One of the things to note is that there cannot be uniformity in the style of leadership being used. This would only result in failure since the employees involved are not motivated in a similar way. It is good for the public service to know that there are both internal and external motivators when it comes to employees. It is very important for the service leaders to identify employees that are influenced by external factors of motivation and those that are influenced by internal factors. This works as a motivation factor since it gives them the autonomy to establish creativity when executing their duties. On the other hand, the employees that are extrinsically motivated require more supervision in their day to day activities. There is also the need of using guidance and praise to ensure that they remain at the top of their “game”. Failing to consider such aspects and applying a similar style while dealing with all the employees would result to inefficiency at the workplace. For employees deriving public service motivation, it is good to assess the intrinsic and extrinsic part of their services too.
For example, in using the examples of building a park, ball field, or community center, the employees assigned to such projects must be motivated by the benefits and advantages that they are going to provide to the community members. It is the responsibility of the public service leader to communicate these benefits and advantages to be enjoyed by the community to the employees assigned to such projects. These employees have to be internally motivated to show up every day and get their work done to please themselves, please their public manager, and work as a team in the process. It is also obvious these employees understand they are showing up every day to get the job done to be paid their salaries and maybe earn overtime pay or bonuses for meeting deadlines hence the need for extrinsic motivation.
Employees tend to have either intrinsic or extrinsic motivation while executing their day to day activities. It is upon the service leaders to identify what motivates the employees; without assuming that their motivation prospects are similar. While dealing with public service motivation, there is also the need of considering the intrinsic and extrinsic motivations that might be involved.
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The Importance Of Public Service Motivation
Public sector employees are often criticized for being ‘lazy, ‘overpaid’ and ‘underworked’ but it is undeniable that it is expected of them to render excellent service to the citizens of its nation. They ought to be highly reliable and driven to ensure that the needs and demands of the public are promptly addressed. People in the public organizations are anticipated to be altruistic in nature, and being a public servant is the usual advocacy, but how driven are they in fulfilling this role? This phenomenon in the field of public administration is called the Public Service Motivation (PSM). It refers to the motive of the individual to serve the public interest (Bright, 2016) that relates to one’s sense of service and duty to government and society, or an attraction to serve the public for various reasons, regardless as it is for altruistic or for self-centered purposes. According to the United Nations Development Programme Global Centre for Public Service Excellence, there is a decline of moral in the public service, as scholars argue that …show more content…
In this essay, the author
- Explains that public sector employees are often criticized for being lazy, overpaid, and underworked, but it is expected of them to render excellent service to the citizens of its nation.
- Argues that there is a decline of moral in the public service, as scholars argue that public officials have intrinsic motivations to serve public good as they are associated with "a sense of duty", "altruism," and "public morality."
- Explains that the public sector is perceived to be more corrupt than its private counterparts because of insufficient salaries and benefits. non-monetary incentives and opportunities like sense of mission and professional pride motivate employees to pursue organizational goals.
- Explains that the concept of public service motivation raised the interest of researchers in public administration. motivating public sector employees is one of the biggest concerns among public administrators.
- Explains that public service motivation (psm) has garnered the interest of researchers in the field of public administration and human resources management.
- Explains that psm is relevant in the field of public administration and its antecedents and consequences to employees in public sector.
- Opines that to efficiently serve in the public sector, it is necessary for government workforces to be highly motivated and engaged in doing their jobs. it is important to develop strategies to effectively attract and recruit individuals who can perform efficiently and productively as a public servant.
- Explains that there have been no recent studies on public service motivation in the philippine context since the existing studies are usually conducted in western context. the civil service commission (csc) is developing and implementing strategies and programs that can improve all field in human resources.
- Opines that it is important to investigate on various organizational and employee factors which may influence public service motivation. good public servants are portrayed as someone who will exert effort and willingness to help others.
- Opines that it is essential to investigate and study the characteristics of motivation of the public sector employees in the philippine context to contribute in cross-cultural research on psm.
- Explains that this research study will explore the characteristics of the public service motivation among employees in selected public sectors in metro manila.
PSM is the individual’s tendency to respond to his/her psychological needs that are uniquely observed in the public organizations, and usually has a strong desire to serve the society (Perry & Wise, 1990). Studies related to PSM usually involves investigating what attracts people to serve in the public sector, or what makes government employees stay in the public service. Job security, stability, and prestige associated with the office are the factors considered by the individuals who were attracted to enter the public sector (Kjeldsen & Jacobsen, 2012 as cited by Quratulain & Khan, 2015). Whereas, lack of management support, excessive workload, lack of incentives and rewards, and internal politics hinders the development of one’s PSM (Quratulain & Khan,
- Analyzes the systemic differences autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire styles of leadership have on an individual, class, department, or institution.
- Explains that an autocratic leader is less likely to use the opinions or suggestions of others. they are hands-on and believe their way is the only way.
- Opines that nurse leaders who practice the laissez-faire style of leadership take the hands off approach allowing new nurses to work independently and learn as they go with very little supervision.
- Opines that democratic leadership gives followers a vote in nearly every decision the team make.
- Describes how they witnessed nurses in both clinical and hospice settings during their mother's transition. they observed the leadership structure and shift activities.
- Describes how they were told by the medical team at cincinnati that their mother was brain dead and that she would transition quickly. the doctor was hurried, blunt, and to the point when he addressed the family.
- Describes how a positive nurse began to explain their mother's situation after the doctor left the room. she was also in charge of the floor. the democratic leader welcomes subordinates' opinions and suggestions.
- Explains that g. pearson, the rsn nurse, worked at the hamilton hospice facility. she explained that the doctor had excellent professional skills but a poor bedside manner.
- Opines that g. pearson spent a reasonable amount of time with us and periodically visited from time-to-time. other nurses asked questions and she would guide them with direction and suggestions.
- Asks the woman how she likes working for the medical center. she states that she enjoys challenges and working with her team, and intensive care has become more comforting and sympathetic to families of trauma victims.
- Explains that leadership and management practices have significantly changed in the past decades. new forms of leadership must come from everywhere in organizations to meet workplace challenges.
- Describes how they were surprised to see g. pearson working as an attending nurse at hamilton hospice. they knew their mother was in a very good facility.
- Describes how they saw g. pearson in one of the corridors and began to talk. she explained that the facility had not always been as accommodating to families.
- Explains that the majority of the staff members working with families transformed this facility into a place that gives families the necessary support to be with their loved one through their transition.
- Opines that without democratic leadership, there could never be transformational change in an organization. change is a good thing and they believe that as they move forward in their career, they will work as part of the team that will eventually change the world.
- Cites conger, j., & denhardt, r. b. (2003). the new public service: serving, not steering.
- Explains that the civil service profession was founded on the belief that through the use of public funds, government would deliver efficient and effective services to its constituency in a just, fair, and equitable manner.
- Explains that morals are innate and/or instilled in an individual outside of themselves. they are the basis for the values we form.
- Explains that with rapidly changing economic, social, political and technological trends, public managers must successfully fulfill a number of distinctive roles. the public administrator's goal should be to create the greatest good for all, mandate fair and equal treatment, rights and protection for everyone.
- Opines that effective public administration embraces and promotes ethical behavior and practices in the workplace. administrators should promote the public interest by seeking a balance of virtue/intuition, principle, and good consequences.
- Explains the importance of exemplary leadership, professionally and personally, to encourage ethical behavior in government organizations.
- Opines that ethical awareness and sensitivity are essential qualities that are sometimes obscured by self-delusion; they must be integrated into the way administrators think about their practices, embrace and promote ethical behavior in the workplace and incorporate them into their everyday behavior.
- Explains that the ethical triangle is associated with the administrative ethics model, but it can be utilized when evaluating one's personal ethical principles and conduct.
- Explains that public administrators have the responsibility to put the public's interest first, but must also adhere to laws and values that complement their strong ethical backgrounds.
- Analyzes how roberta johnson's article, "paths to combating unethical behavior," describes how well over half of public employees had witnessed serious ethical breaches on the job.
- Explains that the lack of a strategic plan contributes to conflicts of interest. without vision, mission, and goals for organizations to govern themselves by, it is venerable to the personal values imposed by administrators.
- Explains that duty is at the core of the ethical triangle. the actions of bell's administrators deviated from all of these concepts.
- Explains that the king county library system is the fifth largest library system in the united states. bill ptacek started with the organization three years ago and is working towards a new strategic plan titled "the year 2000 plan."
- Explains the use of advocacy & inquiry, or lack thereof, that occurred throughout the case. bolman and deal define advocacy as "including statements that communicate what an individual actually thinks, knows, wants or feels."
- Explains that employees in the kings county library system raised their concerns through high advocacy towards the top-down hierarchy structure and how they felt few issues were resolved. branch managers viewed the dac as a "black hole"
- Opines that employees should practice high advocacy and high inquiry to understand the dac and the changes made to the systems, policies, and rules.
- Explains that the top-down approach at kcls did not use inquiry to investigate the concerns employees had with implementing their ideas, addressing their issues, or providing resolutions for drastic policy changes and organizational structure.
- Explains that bolman & deal (2013) state belief can be self-fulfilling. an open forum allows both sides to state their opinions and an opportunity to listen to the other side.
- Analyzes how moynihan describes public service motivation as an individual's predisposition to respond to motives grounded primarily or uniquely in public institutions and organizations.
- Explains that kcls staff felt strongly about their positions and was upset when they were unable to accomplish their jobs due to sudden modifications in policies, updating systems without employee’s prior knowledge, and changes to their job descriptions.
- Opines that the sudden change to the video loan policy caused employees' concern because they were spending more time implementing the policy than helping answer questions and serve customers. the new strategic plan addressed serving the clients, but it did not address how to help employees accomplish their jobs efficiently.
- Opines that public organizations must become attuned to the effect that management systems and other organizational institutions have on psm. the dac and upper management need to address the issues associated with red tape and reform the strategic plan.
- Opines that kcls needs to confront the problems within the ranks of the dac. the service center's relationship between departments and their managers was strained and lacked successful communication.
- Opines that there's distrust and a lack of communication among managers. outside dac meetings, we rarely work together.
- Opines that the king county library system needs the right structure to promote team building between the dac and the branches.
- Opines that it is imperative for government employees to avoid displaying behavior or capitulating to unethical and immoral business standards in the performance of their duties
- Describes the hatch act, its moral and ethical basis, and the legal implications of violating the united states code.
- Explains that man has developed various forms of government and laws to govern society, based on ethics and morality.
- Explains that ethics is rules of behavior based on ideas about what is morally good and bad. it developed from various philosophical systems and not from nations or ethnic groups.
- Explains that morality is the belief of what is right and wrong behavior. according to conservative estimates, the culturally modern man developed a moral aptitude and conscience around 45,000 years ago.
- Describes how a group of english colonists delivered grievances to the british monarchy and established the foundation of the united states of america.
- Explains the hatch act is a federal law passed in 1939 to prevent damaging political activity by preventing federal employees, state, district of columbia, and local government employees connected to federally funded programs from participating in defined political activities.
- Explains that the osc is an independent federal watchdog agency whose authority comes from four federal statutes, such as the civil service reform act, the whistleblower protection act, and the hatch act.
- Explains that under u.s.c., section 7323, political activities authorized; prohibitions: the attorney violated; using official authority to interfere with the results of an election; soliciting the political participation of individuals with business interests pending before the national labor relations board.
- Explains that under u.s.c., section 7324, political activities on duty, and participating in political activity in a federal office space, federal employees and individuals are subject to removal, reduction in grade, debarment from federal employment, suspension, reprimand, or civil penalties.
- Analyzes the hatch act, its moral and ethical basis, the legal implications of violating u.s.c., and a case study referenced in encyclopedia of ethical failure.
- Opines that it is critical for every government employee to not only practice, but also believe in the standards established by the hatch act in order for the continued existence of a free republic.
- Cites benabou, r., and tirole, j. (2003), intrinsic and extrinesic motivation', in the review of economic studies.
- Explains that motivation is the force that transforms and uplifts people to be productive and perform in their jobs.
- Explains mullins' classification of motivation into intrinsic and extrinsic types.
- Evaluates motivational theories in light of 's previous experiences, but they may not be perfect for every situation.
- Analyzes how james e. griffith called internal affairs to report he was being pressured to lie and take the blame during an internal inquiry for the mishandling of a homicide investigation.
- Opines that the ideal case for a whistleblower to reveal such information would be when the cause is just and where all administrative appeals have been exhausted.
- Analyzes how the "whistleblower" information that may have effected one unit exposed a much larger issue of retribution and bad acts by several units.
- Explains that griffith would not be sheltered from retaliation under traditional state and federal whistleblower laws. federal laws generally protect those that disclose fraud against the government.
- Explains that the nypd detective first grade james griffith was ridiculed, belittled, deprived of benefits, and generally persecuted for disclosing unethical and possibly illegal conduct to internal affairs. while federal and state laws failed to protect griffith, the constitution may offer some relief.
- Cites bowman, j. s., and garofalo, c. (2011). practical ethics in public administration.
- Cites james griffin v. the city of new york, no. 10 cv 02592 (rjd) (d.c. cir.
- Explains that leadership has been defined and described in many different ways throughout time. there are different leadership theories, models, and frameworks used to define leadership.
- Analyzes senator wallis' speech on c-span about the university research bill that had just been passed in her committee. she accused the opposition party of using the amendment process to sneak funding in this high priority funding bill.
- Explains that herbert's reaction was one of confusion and disbelief since he spoke at great length with senator wallis regarding this so-called frog study prior to the vote made by the committee.
- Analyzes how senator willis asked kraft and munn what they thought about her performance. herbert felt that she misrepresented the frog study.
- Analyzes how wallis reminded herbert that she was facing a tough reelection campaign in the next election. her speech on c-span was the perfect performance to demonstrate her commitment to fiscal responsibility.
- Explains that wallis stated that if the amendment for the frog study were to get voted down, the funding could get passed the following year.
- Explains that senator wallis is the leader in this case study as she was both the committee chair and the individual who made the speech on c-span regarding the funding.
- Explains that senator wallis has an obligation as an effective leader to govern using informed decisions. herbert did the research on the frog study.
- Analyzes how senator wallis failed to show integrity with her actions. she misrepresented facts regarding her awareness of the frog study based on her priority to have a sound bite
- Analyzes how senator wallis did not effectively resolve the situation regarding funding for the frog study. an effective leader brings awareness, commitment, integrity, and authenticity into action.
- Concludes that in the case study funding the frog study, analysis of the leader does not describe a leader capable of demonstrating effective leadership.
- Cites gaiter, ciliska, dobbins, and mowat, d.
- Opines that informed decision-making in public health is a case study of organizational change.
- Analyzes how wise's "the public service culture" offers solutions to public personnel motivation by stating that managers should promote and reward people who display public service motives.
- Argues that redford's concept of democratic morality as a cornerstone of the public organization is befitting when analyzing the indoctrination of ethical standards in governmental bureaucracy.
- Analyzes how the apa and nineteenth amendment gave rise to redford's value of individual worth. the fair labor and standards act of 1938 inhibited organizations from taking advantage of workers.
- Argues that the concept of democratic morality is supported by some principles agreed upon by many other theorists.
- Analyzes how the evolution of the internet has introduced new alternatives to universal participation. the internet allows constituents to submit their opinion to popular opinion polls.
- Analyzes how the 2004 election coupled with the national military's "don't ask, don’t tell" policy reveal the stagnant position of the federal government and many state governments regarding homosexual unions.
- Explains dao, james, and the new york times' "same-sex marriage key issue to some g.o.p. races".
- Cites radine, lawrence b., and the american sociologist. organization theory in administrative law: a proposal for a design science
- Analyzes the relationship between democratic values, ethics, and the organization.
- Argues that the inseparable link between customer and employee satisfaction has begun to resonate in the minds of chief decision makers within the public sector.
- Argues that the scholarships and advanced training division should be utilized to demonstrate the importance of employee satisfaction in maximizing customer service satisfaction.
- Illustrates the link between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction through customer service by reviewing practices, procedures, resources, competencies, workload, and improvement performance of core function.
- Proposes solutions such as a review and creation of new policies to govern employee decision making, resulting in more empowered staff and quicker decision results for scholars.
- Evaluates the purpose of scholarships and the enforcing of its objectives, i.e. offer scholarships based on the needs of trinidad and tobago.
- Opines that if the developmental needs list does not accurately portray the needs of trinidad and tobago, why can't the scholars find jobs when the return?
- Opines that there should be more efforts to motivate current employees to reduce the high labour turnover in the satd and to retain excellent performing, contract workers.
- Opines that satd employees should be regularly updated on new policies and procedures to ensure that procedures are adhered to.
- Opines that the ministry should improve the system for recruitment and retention to ensure a qualified and productive workforce.
- Describes employee issues, such as employee improvement, job security, training, and self-development opportunities for all levels of employees, both contract and established.
- Explains the importance of a clear job description and standards that are to be followed by the satds employees to ensure they know what is expected of them.
- Describes the benefits of flexible work arrangements, such as recognition of outstanding work produced by satd employees on a monthly basis.
- Argues that employees who are not directly servicing external clientele should be allowed the option to work from home.
- Proposes a scholarship for every ten employees operating within the ministry of public administration to pursue fields relevant to ministry's development. this enables persons operating at lower level jobs to have upward mobility which supports the gold to diamond initiative.
- Recommends investing in professional development programs to improve leadership capabilities, job skills, and employee productivity.
- Describes the percentage of late arrivals, labor turnover, and returning scholars placed in the public sector.
- Organizational studies and human resource management
Home — Essay Samples — Government & Politics — Public Service — My Motivation To Work In Public Service
My Motivation to Work in Public Service
- Subject: Government & Politics
- Category: Politics
- Essay Topic: Public Service
- Published: 09 Jun 2021
- Downloads: 38
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Motivation : Motivation And Motivation
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Motivation to work Jesus Guzman Psych 301 One topic of I-O Psychology that I found most interesting is motivation to work. The exploration of what it takes to push someone forward to follow certain company standards or rules and fulfilling a responsibility of behaving a certain way to help it succeed. I specifically want to explore the relationship between rewards and motivation. A few studies caught my attention; one was an exploration of a relationship between money attitudes and Maslow’s hierarchy
Overall, motivation is, “the general desire or willingness of someone to do something” (Oxford Dictionaries). For me, motivation plays a significant role in accomplishing goals, working harder, and being successful. Internal and external forces also have a powerful impact on my motivation. I discovered that my motivation stems from both internal and external forces equally. However, sometimes motivation is lacking when doing something unpleasant or undesirable, such as writing an essay. Thankfully
Motivation Motivation is, according to the text, “A set of energetic forces that originate within and outside an employee that initiates work-related effort and determines its direction, intensity and persistence.” (Colquitt) When one hears the word “motivation”, one automatically thinks of an individual’s reasoning behind a certain task or performance. In terms of job motivation, it is what pushes or encourages a person to not only perform the work tasks, but to also be successful in the position
Motivation, Motivation And Intrinsic Motivation
Introduction There are certain theories that works in the business organization at both practical and theoretical levels and one of such theories is motivation. The term motivation has been defined, discussed and has been dealt with a number of times as in accordance with the changing dynamics of the business organizations. Richard M. Ryan and Edward L. Deci defines a person to be motivated if, a person is moved to do something. (2000). Thereby it simply means that the one who is not energized or
Motivation : Motivation And Motivation Essay
4) Motivation Motivation is an important concept in modern psychology. It is not possible to understand, explain or predict human behavior without some knowledge of motivation. Motivation is the effective methods that relate to an individual 's intensity, route and determination of effort towards the achievement of goals. Motivation is the process of producing and maintaining goal-directed behavior. Motivation is a psychological process through which unsatisfied wants or needs leads to drives
Motivation Theory : Motivation And Motivation
Professor Jones Psychology April 28 2016 Motivation Theories Having motivation to do something is very important. Motivation plays a huge roll in everyone’s life, even If someone has very little motivation. There are several types of motivation such as Instinct and drive motivation. These two motivations are quite similar, but different at the same time. I will compare and contrast both of these types of motivation and what I think about them. These motivations are very important to your life and can
researching on how motivation works in our brain, we cannot make a conclusion about the truth of the motivation in the past century. Luckily, Daniel Pink announces his latest results, “The Puzzle of Motivation”, on TED in 2009, which gives us a brand new idea about our motivation and how we could improve us by learning his method. In this essay, I will illustrates the main point of Daniel Pink, the evidence given in his speech, also the benefits I get from his idea which increase my self-motivation and helps
Theories Of Motivation And Motivation
2.2 Motivation Kressler (2003, 1-2) defines motivation as a rationale behind human behavior; anyone who has motives is motivated and has reasons and causes for their actions and inaction. Rationale to work is generally a combination of necessity to work, to satisfy individual needs and to avoid frustration. However motivation is highly personal and people react differently to motivational factors. Armstrong (2006, 317) continues that motivation has three dimension; direction that tells what person
Motivation Theories Of Motivation And Motivation Essay
Overview of Presentation What is motivation? Cognitive theories of Motivation Forms of Motivation Motivation Theories Profile of Motivational Problems How to Motivate Students What is Motivation? Many different theorists have tried to define what is meant by motiviation. Urdan and Schoenfelder (2006) defined Motivation as follows: “Motivation is a complex part of human psychology and behavior that influences how individuals choose to invest their time, how much energy they exert in any given task
Motivation And L2 Motivation
part of the literature review section consists of a number of articles on L2 motivation and different theoretical frameworks for studying L2 motivation. Motivation is usually accounted as a sociopsychological factor that ‘appears to be the second strongest predictor of success, trailing only aptitude’ (Skehan, 1989, cited in Gass et al., 2013, p. 453), but its nature is still unclear. Dörnyei (2001) believes that motivation can be described as an answer why people decided to do something, how long
Motivation And Employee Motivation
Abstract Motivation is very important subject in today’s business every organization tries to motivate their employee because of to perform well in workplace and achieve organization goals. This research show relationship between employee motivation and their work performance in the organization also show the relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. The basic goal of this research is to identify connection between employee and their performance. Also show that intrinsic factors have
Motivation And Motivation For Employees
Motivation in the work place has always been a problem for employers. It is a key element in keeping the employees driven to do good work or finish tasks on time. There are several methods of motivation that help employees stay with an organization. Motivation varies from person to person. Different methods of motivation drive people differently. Webster’s dictionary says motivation is something inside people that drives them to action. In other words it is the willingness to work at a level
The Motivation And Intrinsic Motivation
All children are unique and learn in different ways, however, when it comes to their motivation they will most likely fall into one of two categories. Extrinsic motivation revolves around grades and points and competition, and intrinsic motivation stems more from personal interests, sense of belonging, and passion to grow. (Carol Dweck). Roman, an 11-year-old high functioning autistic child, had no desire to participate in any class learning when I began working with him. He only excitedly and willingly
Managers have to be ready to motivation different types of people. However, most managers should be very diverse when it comes to motivating employees. Intrinsic and extrinsic rewards play a huge part in the success of an organization. As a manager, we have to be open to trying new theories that will increase the productivity of the organization. This paper is will give some insight on motivation and the roles it plays in my organization. There are many theories on motivation. Motivating employees
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What is motivation? Motivation is described as the DESIRE to achieve a goal through the commencement or launching of goal-oriented behaviour. There are two ways that people are motivated, Positive motivation and Negative motivation. Negative motivation is motivation that takes place because people are afraid of the consequences if they would be negatively motivated not to do something that would cause them anguish or guilt then they would be negatively motivated not to do something. Negative motivation
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The current state of education puts little emphasis on intrinsic motivation yet asks “how can I motivate my students?” “Children are intrinsically motivated to learn, to undertake challenges, and to solve problems” (Deci & Ryan, p. 11) and this is the theme of the research. Intrinsic motivation is already built into the child since birth and it is the education system that is tearing it down. Teachers believe that extrinsic motivation or using rewards will improve the outcome of the task and will
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Motivation And Extrinsic Motivation
Motivation is defined as the driving force or the reason behind any action. There are two types of motivation:- 1. Extrinsic Motivation: Extrinsic motivation is defined as the type of motivation in which the person is motivated by external benefits. These benefits can occur in tangible or intangible forms. Extrinsic motivation that is in tangible nature includes money, medals and trophies while intangible forms of extrinsic motivation includes praise, recognition etc. For example a student who works
The Motivation And Employee Motivation
The central problem that always employers and employees face is the employee motivation. The workers who put no effort to do their best in their jobs which will lead to low quality of work and give no benefit to the organization are the one who are not motivated (Amabile 1993). On the other side, employees who are apparently to be very intelligent, action oriented, ambitious, autonomous and always put an effort and sacrifice their time to put the organization at the ease are the one who feel motivated
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Essay On How To Motivate Minimum Wage Service Workers
Show More Propose three ways to motivate the minimum wage service worker. Motivating minimum wage service worker can be a little trick because most employees are worried about the compensation. Compensation is plays a major role but motivation can be showing in other different ways. Try to make the work environment fun by having celebration for birthdays, work anniversaries and recognition of work performance. This can be encouraging because the employees see that you care about them even if you can not afford to contribute to their salary. Flexible schedule is a plus especially for employees who can not keep a traditional work schedule. Career opportunities and training development can be a sure motivator. Giving them the skills to prepare for career advancement will be an extreme way of motivating to know that they will have the opportunity to further their career in a better position. Consider how communication, attitudes, behavior and culture affect team performance. Outline a guide you would use to lead a work team. I am currently in a position of lead of the Administrative staff at my job. I have five staff members that I delegate out work and help support. Everyone work ethics or standards are different and it can be very difficult because I am new to being in this position. My guide is to make sure that we are able to work as a team. Effective teamwork is crucial. The key elements for employees are the abilities to work with others, commitment, communication between the team members is vital to ensure that all know what needs to be done, and what their specific responsibilities are. You have to show the members of the …show more content… Try to mediate and resolve disputes. Everyone may not get along with each other because of different personalities. Step five: Encourage members to share information. I encourage my staff to share how they perform their job duties with each other especially if they are off of work for an extended period of
Panda express case study.
Moreover, if my solution is applied employees will be able to work effectively and managers will save money in the long run. If you are willing to consider my proposed plan, there are ways to improve upon this plan and in time can bring in more revenue. In addition to the applied plan, new employees that are trained can be interviewed to receive feedback on the training. As the general manager, you are always looking for ways to improve the company and you know that any feedback is valuable and essential for a company to thrive. The feedback can be used to continually improve upon the way of training.…
The Deterrents Of Employee Motivation
Being recognized is important for some employee, especially for those have needs for esteem. Appropriate reward will not only improve job satisfaction, also increase motivational levels to enhance organizational effectiveness. (Quratul-Ain, 2011) Deterrents of Motivation Before starting the deterrents of motivation, it is important to know about organization diversity. This diversity does not mean people came from different culture or countries, but different personalities of employees. Each person has his or her own personalities, which verifies this person’s decisions, attitudes, and value at work.…
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This type of pay is a great tool for organizations to encourage and motivate employees to enhance their skills. The organization benefits also by having highly trained staff help make the organization successful. The third type system is the alternative reward system. This type of system rewards employees can motivate employees with rewards that do not involve money (Phillips &Gully, 2014). Many people would prefer to be recognized and shown that they are appreciated.…
Employee Motivation Paper
This theory says that listening to the views of the employees is a crucial need as it creates the sense of belonging in the minds of the workers, which motivates them. It further says, a person beginning his career will be very concerned with his lower order needs like psychological needs such as wages and security. If these are fulfilled he will be motivated to work and it will result in better outcome. When these lower needs are not fulfilled, a worker loses his motivation and the sense of security. This is where role of organization is important that it fulfills the lower level needs of a…
Mcclelland's Theory Of Motivation In The Workplace
Employees motivated by achievement need challenging, but not project that are impossible(Fisher, 2009). As a manager I would be looking to motivate them with difficult problems or situations that can be solved. Finally workers motivated by affiliation work best in a group environment(Weinbach & Taylor, 2015). Therefore integrating them with a team could potentially produce their best work. Which eliminates risk and uncertainty which they have difficulty with.…
Cost Management Internship Report Example
The project coordinators, estimators and project manager work together to make sure a project is bid and executed efficiently. Any coordination problem between the three could lead to delay and loss in the project. In addition to all these lessons, I also attained good experience in this internship. For example, previously interacting with people was not easy for me. But during this internship I had to interact with professionals of different levels on a daily basis and slowly I developed good interpersonal relationship skills by learning from my colleagues.…
The Importance Of Becoming A Great Boss
There is a lot of responsibility in being the boss, and managing the affairs included will make the job easier. This is a process that can take some time to get right, so working on it, and its new avenues and issues by keeping up with the latest information will be very helpful. One day an employee can come into work with the same problem that has been had by many, but they see it in an unfamiliar way. This is where the good boss realizes that new solutions need to be found, instead of becoming frustrated with answers that are not working. The boss who is ready to try…
Intrinsic And Extrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic motivation always works effectively, however, not last for long (Armstrong 2014, p.170). The first function is incentive; employees get a return through excellent performance, but also promote the development of the organization. Second, it acts as a united team, which created a positive working atmosphere, when employees work in a positive team, they are more willing to share good ideas and experiences, and consider the development of the organization as a common mission. In addition, it helps to retain employees and reduce cost. Reward to employees who are considering leaving is better than high employee turnover and the cost of training new employees.…
Employee Benefit Analysis
“Employees and prospective employees have a lot of options these days, thus employers must give them a good reason to choose you as a place of employment” (Schram, 2015). Employee benefits are important to people and “finding the right mix of benefits to creating a positive return on investment is a challenge” (Merhar, 2015). Providing employees with benefits that meet their needs will not be cheap, but it 's one of the best approaches to adding value to the bottom…
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